Khotini lahing - ajalugu

Khotini lahing - ajalugu

Khotini lahingus võitsid Osman II juhitud Osmanite väed Sigismund III Poola väed. Lahing toimus Dneisteri jõel, mis asus Poola ja Osmanite vasallriigi Moldova piiril. Osman II oli sunnitud naasma Konstantinoopolisse, kus ta järgmisel aastal tapeti.

Khotyni kindlus

The Khotyni kindlus (Ukraina keeles: Хотинська фортеця, poola: twierdza w Chocimiu, Türgi: Hotin Kalesi, Rumeenia: Cetatea Hotinului) on kindlustuskompleks, mis asub Lääne -Ukrainas Tšernivtsi oblastis (provintsis) Khotõnis Dnestri jõe paremal kaldal. See asub ajaloolise Põhja -Bessaraabia piirkonna territooriumil, mis jagunes 1940. aastal Ukraina ja Moldova vahel. Kindlus asub ka teise kuulsa kaitserajatise, Kamianets-Podilskyi vana Kam'yanetsi lossi vahetus läheduses. Praeguse Khotyni linnuse ehitamist alustati 1325. aastal, samas kui olulisi parandusi tehti 1380. ja 1460. aastatel.


Khotyni lahinguga (1621) sarnased või sarnased sõjalised konfliktid

Kombineeritud piiramine ja seeria lahingud, mis toimusid ajavahemikus 2. septembrist kuni 9. oktoobrini 1621 Poola-Leedu armee koos kasakaliitlastega, mida juhtis Leedu suurheetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz, ja pealetungiva Ottomani keiserliku armee, mida juhtis sultan Osman II, mis peatati kuni esimese sügisene lumi. Vikipeedia

17. sajandi keskel laastavate sõdade all. 1569. aasta Lublini Liit asutas Poola -Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse, tihedamalt ühendatud liitriigi, asendades kahe riigi varem eksisteerinud isikliku liidu. Vikipeedia

Moldaavia Magnate Wars või Moldavian Ventures viitavad ajavahemikule 16. sajandi lõpus ja 17. sajandi alguses, mil Poola -Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse magnaadid sekkusid Moldaavia asjadesse, põrkudes kokku Habsburgide ja Ottomani impeeriumiga. ülemvõimu ja mõju vürstiriigi üle. Jan Zamoyski, Poola suur kroonkantsler (kanclerz) ja sõjaväeülem (suur kroonhetman), kes on tuntud oma vastuseisu poolest Habsburgide vastu, oli olnud hääl Rahvaste Ühenduse laienemisele lõunasuunas. Vikipeedia

Jan Karol Chodkiewicz (u. Poola -Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse armee sõjaline ülem, pärit aastast 1601 Leedu väeetmanist ja aastast 1605 Leedu suuretmanist ning oli Poola -Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse üks silmapaistvamaid aadlikke ja väejuhte. tema ajastu. Vikipeedia

Konflikt Poola -Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse ja Osmanite impeeriumi vahel Moldaavia kontrolli üle. See lõppes sellega, et Rahvaste Ühendus võttis oma nõuded Moldaavia vastu tagasi. Vikipeedia

Lahing Poola – Osmanite sõja ajal (1620–21) Poola – Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse (abiks mässuliste Moldaavia vägede) ja Osmanite vägede (toetatud Nogais) vahel, peeti 17. septembrist kuni 7. oktoobrini 1620 Moldaavias Pruti jõe lähedal. Rahvaste Ühenduse diplomaatilise esinduse ebaõnnestumise tõttu Konstantinoopolis ja Busza lepingu rikkumise tõttu mõlema poole poolt (kuna kasakad ja tatarlased jätkasid oma rünnakuid üle piiri) halvenesid osmanite ja Rahvaste Ühenduse suhted kiiresti 1620. aasta alguses. Wikipedia

Poola -Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse ajalugu (1648–1764) hõlmab perioodi Poola ja Leedu Suurhertsogiriigi ajaloos alates ajast, mil nende ühisriigist sai sõdade ja sissetungide teater, mida peeti laialdaselt keskel. sajandil, vahetult enne Poola -Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse viimase kuninga Stanisław August Poniatowski valimist. Alates 17. sajandist koges aadlike ja demokraatia#27 hävitavaid sõdu ning sattus sisemisse korralagedusse ja seejärel anarhiasse ning langes selle tagajärjel. Vikipeedia

Poola -Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse Jan Zamoyski ekspeditsioon Moldaaviasse osana Moldaavia Magnate sõdadest. 1595. aasta alguses veenis Transilvaania prints Sigismund Báthory mässama Ungari palgasõdurite ülemat Ștefan Răzvanit. Vikipeedia

Üks paljudest sõjalistest konfliktidest Poola Kuningriigi krooni ja Leedu Suurhertsogiriigi ning Ottomani impeeriumi ja selle vasallide vahel. Osmanite Sylistria provintsi kuberner. Vikipeedia

Sõda Poola -Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse ja Osmanite impeeriumi vahel Ukraina pärast. Üks Vene-Poola sõja tagajärgi ja Poola-Ottomani sõja (1672–1676) eelmäng. Vikipeedia

Poola sõjaväeülem, keda peetakse üheks andekamaks ja võimekamaks Poola -Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse ajaloos. Samuti magnaat, kuninglik ametnik, castellan, Poola aadli (szlachta) liige ja Sandomierzi vojevood (kuberner) alates 1625. aastast kuni surmani. Vikipeedia

Zaporozhian kasakate Zaporozhian kasakas Army, Zaporozhian Host (Військо Запорозьке või Військо Запорізьке, Войско Запорожское) või lihtsalt Zaporozhians (Запорожці, Запорожцы, Kozacy zaporoscy, Záporožští kozáci) olid kasakad, kes elas üle Dnepri Rapids, maa tuntud ka ajalooline termin Wild Fields tänapäeva ja#x27s Kesk -Ukrainas. Üle ujutatud Kakhovka veehoidla veest. Vikipeedia

Kasaka mäss, mis leidis aset aastatel 1648–1657 Poola -Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse idapiirkondadel, mille tulemusel loodi Ukrainas kasakate etmanaat. Hetman Bohdan Hmelnitski juhtimisel võitlesid Zaporožja kasakad, kes olid liitunud Krimmi tatarlaste ja kohaliku Ukraina talurahvaga, Poola ülemvõimu ja Rahvaste Ühenduse jõudude vastu. Vikipeedia

Poola-Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse sõjavägi koosnes 1569. aasta Lublini liidule järgnenud kahest halduslikult eraldiseisvast Poola Kuningriigi ja Leedu Suurhertsogiriigi armeest, mis ühinesid Poola-Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse kahest koosseisust koosneva valikmonarhiaga. Juhib Poola -Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse hetmanid, kes juhivad oma riigi armeed. Vikipeedia

Lahing Vene ja Osmanite armeede vahel, mis toimus 17. augustil 1739 Vene-Türgi sõja ajal aastatel 1735–1739. Väike moldova küla Khotynist umbes 12 km edelas (täna ja#x27s Tšernivtsi oblast Ukrainas ,,). Vikipeedia

Poola-Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse hetmanid olid Poola-Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduses kõrgeimad sõjaväeohvitserid, kes jäid alla ainult kuningale. Loodud 1505. Wikipedia

Cornul lui Sasi lahing toimus 9. juulil 1612 Moldova vürstiriigi (toetatud Ottomani impeeriumi ja Krimmi khaaniriigi) ning Poola -Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse vahel. Selle tulemuseks oli moldovlaste selge võit ,tefan IX Tomșa juhtimisel. Vikipeedia

Lwówi lahing või Lesienice'i lahing viitab 24. augustil 1675. aastal Lwówi linna (Lviv, Lääne -Ukraina) lähedal toimunud lahingule Poola – Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse ja Ottomani impeeriumi armeede vahel. Wikipedia

Kasakad on rühm valdavalt idaslaavi keelt kõnelevaid õigeusu kristlasi, kes said tuntuks demokraatlike, isevalitsevate ja poolsõjaliste kogukondade liikmetena, kes on pärit Ida-Euroopa steppidest, eriti Dneprist, "metsaväljalt". Oluline roll nii Ukraina kui ka Venemaa ajaloolises ja kultuurilises arengus. Vikipeedia

Tšudnovi lahing (Chudniv, Cudnów) toimus 14. oktoobrist kuni 2. novembrini 1660 Poola -Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse vägede vahel, kes olid liitunud Krimmi tatarlastega, ja Venemaa tsaaririigi vahel, kes olid liitunud kasakatega. See lõppes Poola otsustava võiduga ja Chudnovi (Cudnów) vaherahuga. Vikipeedia

Võitles Poola-Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse Podhajce linnas (tänapäeval Pidhaitsi, Lääne-Ukraina) ja seda ümbritseval alal Poola-Tatari sõja ja Suure Türgi sõja osana. Poola -Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse armee, Johannes III Sobieski juhtimisel, kokku umbes 9000 meest, võitis tatarlaste ja kasakate vägesid Petro Dorošenko ja Adil Giray juhtimisel, kokku umbes 35 000 meest. Vikipeedia

Konflikt Poola -Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse ja Ottomani impeeriumi vahel, mis oli Suure Türgi sõja eelkäija. See lõppes 1676. aastal Żurawno rahulepinguga ja Rahvaste Ühenduse loovutas kontrolli enamiku Ukraina territooriumide üle impeeriumile. Vikipeedia

Lyubari lahing või Lubari lahing toimus 14. ja 27. septembril 1660 Lyubari lähedal Vene-Poola sõja ajal (1654–1667) Poola-Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse (liitlased tatarlastega) ja Venemaa tsaaririigi vahel (liitlased). kasakatega). 1660. aasta kampaania esimene lahing lõunas. Vikipeedia

Võitles 10. jaanuaril 1475 Moldaavia Stephen III ja Rumeenia Ottomani kuberneri Hadım Suleiman Pasha vahel. Lahing toimus Podul Înaltis (Kõrge sild), Vaslui linna lähedal, Moldovas (praegu Ida -Rumeenia osa). Vikipeedia

Konfliktide seeria Ottomani impeeriumi ja Püha Liiga vahel, mis koosneb Habsburgide monarhiast, Poolast-Leedust, Veneetsiast ja Venemaast. Intensiivsed lahingud algasid 1683. aastal ja lõppesid Karlowitzi rahulepingu allkirjastamisega 1699. aastal. Wikipedia

Armee eesotsas Serbia prints Lazar Hrebeljanovićiga ja Ottomani impeeriumi pealetungiv armee sultan Murad Hüdavendigâri juhtimisel. Võitles Kosovo väljal Serbia aadliku Vuk Brankovići valitsetud territooriumil, praeguse Kosovo territooriumil, umbes 5 km moodsast Pristina linnast loodes. Vikipeedia

Võitlus Ukraina kasakate hetmani Ivan Võhovski juhitud koalitsiooni ja Semjon Pozharsky ja Semjon Lvovi juhitud Vene tsaaririigi ratsaväeüksuste vahel, keda toetasid Ivan Bezpaly kasakad, 29. juunil 1659 Ukrainas Konotopi linna lähedal, Vene-Poola sõja ajal. Võhovski koalitsioon alistas venelased ja nende liitlased ning sundis Venemaa peaväge Konotopi piiramise katkestama. Vikipeedia

Võitles Ukraina kasakate eesotsas heetman Bohdan Hmelnitskiga, keda abistasid nende liitlased Krimmi tatarlastest, ja Poola armee vahel kuningas Johannes II Casimiriga. Kasakate mässu lahing Ukrainas, mis toimus aastatel 1648–1657 pärast kaheaastase vaherahu lõppemist. Vikipeedia

Ottomani impeeriumi sultan 1618. aastast kuni tappeni 20. mail 1622. Sündis Topkapı palees, Konstantinoopolis, sultan Ahmed I ja ühe tema kaaslase Mahfiruz Hatuni pojana. Vikipeedia

Poola aadlik Lubiczi vapiga, magnaat, sõjaväeülem ja Poola -Leedu Rahvaste Ühenduse Poola krooni kantsler, kes osales paljudes Rahvaste Ühenduse kampaaniates ning selle lõuna- ja idapiiril. Ta oli Rahvaste Ühenduse administratsioonis mitmel kõrgel ametikohal, sealhulgas Kiievi vojevoodkonna vojevoodist ja kroonikantslerist (alates 1618. aastast) Lwówi kastell (aastast 1590). Vikipeedia

Näidatud allpool. Pange tähele, et piiramisrõngasid nimekirja ei kaasata. Vikipeedia


1621 Khotyni lahing

Kui teie sugupuus on isikuid, kes osalesid Khotyni lahingus, lisage nad sellesse projekti. Oleks tore, kui profiili kirjelduses "Umbes" oleks lühike elulugu.

Avatud profiililehel kasutage nuppu "Toimingud", et "Lisa projekti". Valige see projekt (selle valiku loendis nägemiseks peate olema selle projekti kaasautorite loendis). Saate lisada mis tahes avaliku profiili, mille muutmiseks teil on luba. Kui teil pole luba profiili muutmiseks, saadetakse profiilihaldurile taotlus profiili lisamiseks projekti.

Märkus. Projektidele võib lisada ainult avalikke profiile.

Khotyni lahing või Chocimi lahing või Hotini sõda (türgi keeles Hotin Muharebesi) oli kombineeritud piiramine ja lahingute seeria, mis toimusid ajavahemikus 2. septembrist kuni 9. oktoobrini 1621 Poola-Leedu armee ja kasaka liitlaste vahel, mida juhtis Suur. Leedu hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz ja pealetungiv Ottomani keiserlik armee, eesotsas sultan Osman II -ga, mis peatati kuni esimese sügisene lumi. 9. oktoobril loobusid Osmanid hooaja hilinemise ja suurte kaotuste tõttu - Rahvaste Ühenduse kindlustuste ebaõnnestunud rünnakute tõttu - piiramisest ja lahing lõppes ummikseisuga, mis kajastub lepingus, kus mõned lõigud soosivad Ottomaneid, teised aga soosis Rahvaste Ühendust. Chodkiewicz suri 24. septembril 1621 vahetult pärast türklastega lepingu sõlmimist.


Khotyni lahing 1673.

Khotyn XVI - XVII sajandi teisel poolel. See on sageli olnud lahingukoht Poola-kasakate ja Türgi vägede vahel. Asub Khotyn ja tugev kivist loss ehitatud lähenemisviise sellele mullatööd võimaldas tõhusat kaitset, ja ka läbi katte all suurtükivägi, tema ületamise Dnestri märkimisväärne hulk vägesid. Seetõttu püüdsid vastased konflikti ajal kasutada Khotyni lossi pakutavaid strateegilisi eeliseid, eriti kaitses.

Septembris 1621 toimus Khotyni ajal üks Euroopa laiaulatuslikest sõjalistest konfliktidest - lahing, mis oma vastupidavuse tõttu nimetas Khotõni sõjaks. Lahingus Türgi sultani Osman II armee vastu osalesid koos krooni ja Leedu vägedega Zaporožje kasakate armees, mida juhtis hetman Petro Konashevich Sagaydachnogo.

Hoopis teistsugune sündmus arenes aga Poola-Türgi konfliktist 1673. aastal, kui hetman Jan Sobieski kavandas rünnakut Türgi rühmitusele, mis asus Khotõnis seelikute katmiseks mõeldud reservina ja võimaliku rünnakuna Galiciale. Tõepoolest, augustis ja septembris 1672 vallutas Türgi sultan Kamenetz Podolski ning mitmed teised linnad ja kindlused. Üks Rahvaste Ühenduse ebaõnnestumise põhjusi oli see, et nüüd ei saanud ta kasutada Ukraina kasakate täielikku võimu, nagu see oli 1621. aastal, välja arvatud kasakate osa, kes toetas Ataman Zaporizhzhya Sichit, siis parempoolsed. Pank Ukraina hetman Michael Khanenko.

Kaotatud maa ja lukkude taastamiseks pidid Poola väed purustama esimese Hotinskaja vaenlase väe, kes katkestas Türgi garnisoni oma varustusbaaside seelikutel Moldovas. Olles kogunud kolmkümmend tuhat sõdurit Poolast ja Leedust ning kutsunud appi kasakate hetmani M. Khanenko paremat kallast, kolis Poola kroonhetmaan Jan Sobieski sügisel 1673 Khotõni.

10. november Poola-Leedu-kasakate armee lähenes lossile ja asub türklaste 1621. aastal ehitatud kindlustustes ning hakkas tulistama vaenlase relvade esirinnas. Turks Hotinskaya rühmas töötab ligi 40 000 sõdurit, sealhulgas 8 tuhat. Janissary juhtis nelja pashat, mida juhtis Hussein Pasha serasker. Türklaste käsutuses oli 120 relva ja Poola vägedel - 50. Üllataval kombel asusid ründama kasakad kolonel Motovidlomi ja Saksa jalaväe kindrali Denemarka juhtimisel ning tungisid Türgi laagrisse. Ilmselgelt polnud Sobieski oodanud sellist osavust ja kiirust kasakate ja sakslaste poolt, seega polnud tal aega keskenduda vajaliku löögijõu suunale. Türklastel õnnestus vaprad hävitada. Kangelaslikus surmas langes kasakas kolonel Motovidlo kindral Denemark ja kapten Jarocki. Kuid järgmisel päeval, 11. novembril tabas Poola suurtükivägi Türgi kindlustusi ja hävitas need osaliselt. See võimaldas laagris tungida Türgi armeesse ja teha vasturünnakuid. Seejärel piirati vaenlane ümber. Türklaste seas tekkis paanika, nad põgenesid Dnestrisse, kus oli puust sild, mis ühendas Khotinski ja Podolski jõekallast. Kuid raskust talumata purustasid linnad ja tuhanded türklased jões. Kaotus oli täielik. Lahingu käigus hukkus 20 000 türklast, 6000 põgenikku uputati Dnestrisse, 10 000 türklast jõudis Kamenetzi, kuid teel on nad hävitanud mässulised ja Podolski kasakad -vaalalased, kes suutsid üle Dnestri ujuda, ning vaenlase jälitamine. Poola-Leedu-kasakate vägede kaotus oli suhteliselt väike, kuid 11. novembril 1673 hukkunute seas oli noor aadlik Stepan Orlik, tulevase hetmani Orlyki isa.

Jan Sobieski võit Khotyni juhtimisel käivitas sõjaväelise hiilguse ülemal, kelle esivanemad kuulusid Ukraina aadelkonda, ja tema isa oli kuninglik komissar Khotõni sõjas 1621. See võit andis Poola kroonhetmanile Jan Sobieskile, keda poolakad nimetasid "Päikesekuningas".

Kuigi 1673. aasta lahingul ei olnud sellist ajaloolist tähtsust nagu 1621. aasta sündmustel, mõjutas see ka Kesk -Euroopa rahvaste võitluse intensiivistumist Türgi agressiooni vastu.


Khotini lahing - ajalugu

Iidne linn Khotyn on keskaegses Euroopa ajaloos silmapaistev. Lähtudes idaslaavlaste lähedusest Lähis -Dnestri olulisel ristmikul, arenes see kiiresti ja sellest sai üks territooriumi olulisi kaitse- ja kaubanduspunkte. Khotyni kindlus oli omal ajal üks tugevamaid Ida -Euroopas, selle müüride all koondus korduvalt arvukalt armeed. Tänu kindluse strateegilisele piirialasele asukohale oli see sajandeid osa erinevatest osariikidest (Kiievi-Venemaa, Galicia-Volyn, Moldaavia vürstiriik, Ottomani, Austria-Ungari, Vene impeerium), mis selgitab suuresti selle arhitektuurilist stiili. sõjalise kaitsearhitektuuri arendamisega seotud üldiste Euroopa suundumuste mõjul, kuid sai ka omamoodi etnilise koloriidi.

Kirjalikud allikad ei sisalda teavet selle kohta, kuidas ehitati lossi esimene kivi ja tänapäevani olemasolev tsitadell. "On Dnestri Khotyn" on mainitud linnade seas Walnut kroonikas "Nimekiri Venemaa linnadest kaugel ja lähedal", mis on koostatud XIV sajandi lõpus. Kuid arheoloogilised uuringud annavad võimaluse rääkida linnakorterite tekkimisest kindlustatud lossi-tsitadelli ümber muinasajal. Slaavi küla kõrgel kaljulisel Dniesteri nännakul võib olla juba lihtsate puidust kindlustustega kaitstud põranda poolt, seal oli VIII-IX sajandil. X-XI sajandil. asustus asus palju suuremal alal (umbes 20 hektarit), lamades, otsustades majade ja krohvitoodete leidude järgi ning naabermägedes.

Majutus linnus orus, ümbritsetud kolmest küljest tõusud viitab sellele, et iidne loss ehitatud kaua enne mitte ainult suurtükivägi, kuid kamenemetalnih seadmeid. Esimene usaldusväärne kindlustus valli puidust zaborolami ja õõnes kivine neem üle vallikraavi, on ilmselt X-XI sajandi vahetusel. Siis kinnitus Kiievi vürst Vladimir Svjatoslavovitš pärast matka Horvaatia maadel Venemaa ja slaavi Tivertši territooriumile, ehitades uusi kindlusi vürstivõimu keskusteks ja kuberneride asukohaks.

Kaheteistkümnendal sajandil. Khotyn liitus Terebovlia ja Galicia maadega, saades oluliseks kaubanduskeskuseks Dnestri veeteel. Arvatakse, et esimesed kivikindlustused Khotõni kindlus võiksid olla 40-50 aastat kahekümnendast. XIII sajand. Kui Daniel Romanovitš, prints Galitski, tugevdades vanu ja ehitades uusi kindlusi mongoli-tatari sissetungi vastu kaitsmiseks. Teine seisukoht-et see juhtus pärast 1259. aastat, kui mongoli-tatari Daniel Romanovitši rukkilillede nõudmisel ja olid sunnitud hävitama kõik kaitsemehhanismid, sealhulgas puidu-Hotinskaja kaevamised, mille koht ehitati hiljem ja kivi. Linnuse vanima osaga mördi analüüs näitas selle sarnasust XI-XII sajandi Kiievi tsemendi (lubjakivi, millel on märkimisväärne katkiste telliste segu) lahustega. See näitab, et esimesed kiviseinad võisid tekkida varem XIII sajandi XII-I poolel. Kui mitte lõpetada sõjalisi konflikte Galicia-Volyni vürstiriigi ja Ungari kuningriigi vahel.

Iidse kivilinnuse-linnuse territoorium moodsa kindlushoovi põhjaosas (tänapäeval paleeülema müüride Põhjatornist). Esimene kindlus oli väike ala, mille pindala oli väiksem kui 2 hektarit, ümbritsetud aia ja kuue meetri laiuse pidtrikutnimi vallikraaviga. Temast on säilinud ainult seinad, mis on peidetud sügavale idamüüri, kardin. Tõenäoliselt on peamine kaitsekonstruktsioon, kui torn asub praeguse põhja nelinurkse torni kohas. See võib olla torn, mis kunagi oli seintesse sisse kirjutatud, ja eraldi torn-vangikong, millele hiljem ehitati umbes kolmekümne meetri pikkune müür, mille moodustas ruudukujuline hoov.

XIX sajandi keskel. osaline ümberkorraldamine ja Hotinskaja kindlustuste tugevdamine: poole meetri pikkune seinapaksus, mis leiti 3,5 m sügavusel tänapäevasest pinnast, mis ulatub piki lossi komandandi põhjaperimeetrit idakardinas, rääkides lõunapoolsest kaitseseinast. Neid meetmeid rakendati Moldova kuberneride Galicia alade vallutamise algfaasis Suceava, Sireti ja Pruti jõgede ülemjooksul. Kohalik elanikkond ja isegi neile vastu astuda, kuid ilma toetuseta oli sunnitud alluma Poola ajaloolase Jan Dlugoszi tunnistustele. Siis võib -olla hävitasid linnuse eelmised kivimüürid ja uus vähendati Moldova võõrustajate algatusel pärast 1359. aastat (Moldaavia vürstiriigi aasta), et tugevdada vastloodud riigi piire.

Teise poole kaasamisega XIV. Alam -Dnestrist Moldova vürstiriigis Khotynist saab Moldova põhjapiiril kaubandus- ja tollikontrollipunktina oluline sõjaline ja poliitiline kaal. Suurtükiväe laialdane kasutamine, mis algas XV sajandi keskel. Küsitud Moldova valitseja Stefan cel Mare IRS (Suur) (1457-1504 gg.) Tugevdage aktiivselt vürstiriigi strateegilist kaitsesüsteemi, mis koosnes 9 kindlusest, sealhulgas Hotinskaja. 60ndatel ja#039ndatel - XV sajandi 70ndate alguses. Khotyni loss rekonstrueeriti kapitaalselt ja laiendati lõunasse enam kui kahekordseks, umbes 110 x 55 m suuruseks (nüüd - see on põhjast edelasse (Kowalska) torn kaasa arvatud). Kaitsena kahuritule eest tõusis paks (5 m) ja kõrge (kuni 40 m) seinad ja tornid. Neid kaunistavad punastest tellistest valmistatud kaunistused - pildiseeriad "Babülon" (ilmselt tarkusearhitektide sümbol) ja "Kolgata" (kalju, kus Jeesus risti löödi - üks peamisi kristlikke pühamuid). Kaunistatud sein sai seega rohkem jõudu, rohkem reserveeritust ja õigeusu usu jõudu. Lisaks silmapaistvatele sõjalistele ja poliitilistele omadustele sai Stefan III oma kaasaegsete seas kuulsaks väga vaga mehena, kes austab esivanemaid ning ehitas palju kloostreid ja kirikuid. Khotyni kindlus Moldova valitseja omistas kaitsele strateegilise suuna olulise eelpostina suurt tähtsust, nii et riik kasutab selle kaunistamisel kristlikke elemente.

Tõstetud pryaseli kardinad ja tornid lahendasid luku madala paigutuse probleemi naabruses asuvate mägede suhtes, kuid lossihoov asus linnuse siseruumi sügavuses, tekitab märkimisväärseid ebamugavusi. Seepärast püstitasid õue põrandale räbaldunud kivist mastiga tulevased keldrid, blokeerides nende võlvkaare. Hoonete ning seinte ja tornide vaheliste lünkadega on kivine pinnas valitud kivisele mandrile, mis on kaetud lipsuga - kivikiht, lubimört, paksus 1 m siseõue keskel, paksusega kuni 2 m seina poole. Sellel kihil oli salajase tunneli vältimiseks omamoodi betoon. Lipsud on täidetud prahi ja imporditud pinnasega, tõstes seega sisehoovi taset umbes 8 m. Algselt koostatud rajatised muutusid keldriteks, mis on aluseks maapealsetele hoonetele: kaks paleed, kabelid, kasarmud ja muud hooned, mis pole säilinud. Sellest tulenevalt süvenes 8. kuupäeval kaev hästi, löödi lossi lõunaõue keskele aluspõhja sisse, võib -olla isegi enne ümberkorraldusi.

Kõik selle perioodi kõrvalhooned: palee pirkelaba (vanemad), kirik, kasarmud jm ehitati samaaegselt koos kaitseseinte ja tornidega ning moodustasid ühtse arhitektuurikompleksi. Linnusehoovi põhjaosa (nn "vürstikohus") all on eraldatud suuremast lõunapoolsest ("sõdalaste kohus") müürist, mis on kasvanud XIV sajandi lõunapoolse kaitsemüüri kohale. Kaheksanurkse torni keskosas oli kivist keerdtrepp, mis viis lahingukohta. Torni ja palee vahele jäeti kolme meetri laiune läbipääs õue pirkelaba. See siseõu oli kivisillutis peamistest purustatud kiviplaatidest, mida see mört ja kardinad kokku hoidsid. Seinte siseküljega külgnevad korruselised kloostrid laiusega 3 m.

Lossi rekonstrueerimise tulemusena tugevnes see nii palju, et 1476. aastal ei saanud sultan Mehmeti Ottomani armee AI u200bu2005 seda kätte. Mitte vähemtähtsat rolli mängis selles kindluse kaitsmise korraldamine, mida juhtis pirkelaba Vlaicu - onu Stefan, kes teenis Khotyni komandandina tuhat nelisada kuuskümmend seitse 1481. aastast.

Stefan III juhtis üsna edukat välispoliitikat, edukalt manööverdades Poola, Ungari ja Türgi vahel, ei suutnud teda järgida. Kui 1527. aastal võimule tuli, siis peremehe poeg Petru Rares uuendas uue jõuga Pokuttya kaudu sõjaväelisi kokkupõrkeid poolakatega. 1538. aasta mais Poola-Türgi läbirääkimistel otsustati Rares vürstiriigist välja viia ja asemele asetada teised kubernerid. Suvel piiras Khotynit Poola armee eesotsas krahv J. Tarnowskiga. Olles kaks nädalat linnuse müüride all kaevanud, kavatsevad poolakad nad õhku istutada, kuid pole seda veel teinud, et sõlmida rahuleping sõjapealiku Peetrusega. Sellest on teatanud Poola ajaloolased ise: kroonhetmani M. Stryjkovski sõnul piiras lossi "oleks see juba järjehoidjate püssirohu kaudu kätte saanud, kuid kuberner Peetrus palus kiindumust ja rahu (.), Mille ta sai uuesti vande andmisel. Kuningas Sigismund. Khotyn - loss ilus ja vastupidav, nägin aastal 1574 ".

XVII sajandil. Khotyn peeti ühel Euroopa laiaulatuslikel sõjalistel konfliktidel - lahingus, mida selle kestuse tõttu nimetati Khotõni sõjaks. Septembris 1621 võitlesid Türgi sultani Osman II armee vastu koos krooni ja Leedu vägedega Zaporožje kasakate armees, mida juhtis hetman Petro Konashevich Sagaydachnogo. Juba augusti alguses kogunesid türklased Khotõni alla ligi 160 tuhande armee, üle 300 relva ja suure hulga kaamelite, mulkide, hobuste, isegi nelja elevandi. Tollased poolakad suutsid neile vastu seista vaid 32 tuhande armee eesotsas Jan Chodkiewicziga. See ajendas Sigismund IRS -i abi otsima Zaporožje kasakate käest. 1. september 1621 saabus 39 tuhandest sõjaväest Sagaydachnogo Khotini all asuvasse Poola laagrisse, kus temaga liitus rügement kasakaid B. vuntsidega ja 2. september on juba türklastega lahingusse astunud. Kolmteist kasakarügementi olid relvastatud 20 pronksist ja rauast tööriistaga 3 12 laskemoonaga. Selle maksimaalne arv Zaporožje armeed jõudis Khotõni lahinguväljale 4. septembril, kui pärast kõigi üksuste koondamist kasakate noortega (teenijad, Jur) töötab üle 45–47 tuhande. Mees. Standardite kohaselt oli see tohutu sõjaline jõud, millel oli võtmeroll Ottomani impeeriumi agressiivsete plaanide hävitamisel Rahvaste Ühenduse vastu. 9. oktoober AI Osman oli sunnitud alla kirjutama rahulepingule, mis võrdub lüüasaamisega. Üks tema punktidest (Poola poolel) ütleb: "Kokkuleppe allkirjastamisega laseb Khotynil kõik korras, nii et mis tabas tema koguduse sõjaväelased kuningaga, ja kõik, kes seal oli, Moldaavia valitsejate aeg ". Kohe pärast lepingu sõlmimist Poola laagris saadeti ta linnust kontrollima määratud Türgi esindaja juurde: see pidi hoidma püssirohu ja kuulide jäänuseid.

Tsitadell seisis puutumatuna kuni XVII sajandi lõpuni. Olles elanud üle rahutud aastad, mil Khotyn on korduvalt sattunud Euroopa sõjaliste ja poliitiliste sündmuste keskmesse ning laagris selle müüride all Poola, kasaka, Türgi vägesid ja paigutanud garnisone erinevate osariikide müüridesse. Aastal 1672 hr .. Pärast Kamenetzi vallutamist olid taas Türgi sõdurid eesotsas Hussein Pashaga. Olles kogunud kolmekümne tuhande Poola-Leedu armee kroonhetmani Jan Sobieski parema kalda hetmani kasaka M. Khanenko poolt 11. novembril 1673 alistas neljakümne tuhande osmanite väeosa. Poola-leedu-kasaka kaotused olid üldiselt madalad, kuid nende hulgas oli noor aadlik koos Oshmyanskogo maakonna Leedu Stepan Orlikiga, tulevase hetmani Orlyki isa.

Triumfivõit 1673. aastal, mis tõi Jan Sobieskile Poola trooni, kajastub paljudel maalidel. See lõuend J. van Hugtenberga "Khotini ja raquo lahing (XVII sajandi I veerand.), Kirjutatud perele J. Sobieski Söövitus R. de Hooge" Khotini lahing "(1674), tehtud pealtnägijate joonistuste põhjal kindluse tormimine F. Gratty, sekretär J. Sobieski maal "Khotini lahing" Stesha A. ja F. van Kessel (1674-1679 aastat.). Kõik maalid on selgelt näha, nagu see ilmus Khotyni kindlus. Eelkõige ruudukujulise torni keskel asuvad lõunapoolsed aiaseinad viidi lõpule kahe ümmarguse torni nurkades - paigaldatud lünkadega - Edela- ja Kaguosas. Viimased, viies selle põrandaliistud, viisid sissepääsu silla nelja või viie pülooni juurde, postid, üks Ja nüüd tõusevad mõned neist toestustest, mille vahele on asetatud augud, Dniestrist, tornisilla sissepääsu väravast paremal.

Piltlike allikate abil on arheoloogid leidnud jäänused täielikult hävinud kagutorni ja osa lõunamüürist, mis asuvad nüüd sügaval lossi privaathoovi kaguosas, sillast paremal. Temast vasakult väljastatakse umbes pool vundamendi perimeetrist 1 m kõrgusele kaasaegsest pinnast. Seinad torni püstitatud ehituspõhimõttel Rooma-Bütsantsi müüritis: väljast ja seest visandades pidpryamokutni rändrahnud ja kivid siseruumides zabutovuvavsya ebaregulaarne üleujutatud lubjakivi lahus veeris. Sel viisil ehitasid kõik kaitserajatised lossi. Kagutorni suurus (siseläbimõõt 4,5 meetrit, seinte laius - 2,3 m) korreleerus ligikaudu lääne (komandandi) ümmarguse torniga. Mördi omadused ja ehitusviis näitavad, et torn oli osa II korrusel ehitatud kindlustuste kompleksist. Viieteistkümnes sajand.

Win J. Sobieski ja ajutine viibimine Poola garnisoni kindluses viisid 1675. aastal Ottomani impeeriumi valitsuse välja korralduse lammutada Moldova meistrilukud Neamtis, Suceavas ja Khotinis. But reluctant to follow orders and not very carefully. Khotyn castle was destroyed but the south wall with two towers, a large part of the south-west tower, made holes in the west and north-western parts of the wall, making it impossible to use the citadel for military purposes.

The castle stood in the untenable state before the XVIII century. But after the Russian expeditions to Moldova 1709 and 1711 Porte decides to strengthen Turkish military presence here, which create a military and administrative center (Raju or nahii) centered at Khotin. At the beginning of October 1711 intelligence reported to Peter I on the repair order Vizier Khotyn Castle. In the spring of 1712 in Khotyn came first new military district commander in chief Abdi Pasha, and in 1713-1714 gg. These were deployed about 20 thousand. A soldier of the Turkish divisions. Create Raya completed at the end of 1715 - 1716 in the fortress became its administrative center, which housed the administration and the Turkish military garrison.

According to historical and literary sources, in July 1713, "more than 100 000 people, 200 weapons large and small, horse, equipment and tools to strengthen the fortress moved toward Khotina because it was necessary to strengthen and strength, and the city of Khotin on the Dniester." Then walled gap, rebuilt the south-west tower with a much thicker than previous walls, built a new defensive wall and gate tower, pushing them to the south. On the extension of the castle in this period, among other things, show details of Ottoman architecture, applied in the design of new fortifications, such as decorative reliefs on the window arches (sockets and poultry). The Turks are not restored to the newly ornament the walls of the fifteenth century. with Christian symbols ("Babel" and "Calvary"), but the gap zamurovyvaya the north tower, built of brick or image kofeyschika kumgans: narrow-necked jar of Aquarius, which was used in the East for ritual ablutions before prayer of the faithful Muslims. Maybe he has become a symbol of purification from a previous submission to the fortress of Christian owners.

Along with the reconstruction of the citadel around the Turks it was built more powerful fortifications - New Fortress. Castle lost the value of self-defense facility and become part of a new system of fortifications, covering the east part of the yard again and serving the defense industry in the future arsenal. Now the entrance to the citadel did not need additional protection, and was therefore constructed in the eastern side of the wall of the lower tier of the new gate tower that allows you to quickly make ammunition. The openings between the pillars of the old bridge XV century. stones were laid, thus this section was included in the overall system of outworks.

Keep the records left by Turkish officials, who at the time served as secretary and financial arsenal Chancellery in Khotin. He notes that "in the old fortress is a mosque, a converted old church, housing dzhebedzhibashi (senior officer of the troops destined for the protection and transport of military equipment), dizdara (commandant of the fortress), the artillery barracks and the house of the Imam and muezzin." Near the mosque was built minaret, the foundation stone of which is now adjacent to the western wall of the church.

By 1718 around the castle a new irregular polygon fortress in size 250 x 1200 m from the fortified gates 4 and 6 artillery bastions, secured land tours merlons loopholes and wicker. Now, the defense complex could accommodate twenty thousand garrison with provisions and ammunition in peacetime and sixty thousand troops during the fighting. Curtin height of 9-12 m, surrounded by 24-meter field scarp dry moat, was intended for small-arms gunfire, and counterscarp height of 6-8 m held palisadovana spacious covered road, where they could light guns mounted on shunting carriages. In the most dangerous areas were laid 17 underground mine galleries. Much later finds the locals already half-buried remains of these galleries have created numerous legends about the existence of underground passages that seem to have joined Khotyn with the opposite bank of the Dniester, or even with the Kamenetz.

The courtyard of the fortress

In the interior of the fortress housed built residential, military, economic and religious buildings. Here's how they describe the already mentioned Turkish official, "was built on the old fortress town has gates of Constantinople, Timishoarsku, Water and covertly. In the outer court there are two baths, two mosques and near the gates of Constantinople a lot of shops before the inner fortress there is a bath and gates Enicher-Agassi (the commander of the Janissaries), nearby - a mosque and barracks of the Janissaries Finally, at the end of the valley is a powder magazine. Above - Pasha Palace, and in front of him - the house sofa Efendi (a secretary of the sultan). Across the road is finely decorated public bath defterdara (government official, who was involved in the financial affairs) Kasim Effendi, it is similar to the Istanbul bath before it well and mosque late valide-Sultan (the title of mother of the reigning sultan) in the vicinity of their trial and the cemetery where is Abdi Pasha. At the same cemetery rests a lot of godly men. Abdi Pasha was buried in a marble sarcophagus, well carved and ornate, gilded and vizirsky turban. Inside, to the right of the gates of Constantinople, were artillery barracks space for wagons and Palace defterdara Left - a pantry of bread, a spacious and well-built, like no in Rumelia, or in port, or in other fortresses. Next to the bath Kasim Effendi - a well-built school and the arch. " Unfortunately, only in some places extending from the grass foundations remind us of the dense inner granted New fortress in the past. Relatively well preserved only remnants of a mosque with a minaret-valide sultan, built, apparently at the expense of the mother then ruling Sultan Ahmed III (1703-1730 gg.). Their ruins are now well traced across the Church of St. Alexander Nevsky.

Although the fortification complex New Fortress was founded on the European model, in the decoration of certain facilities used elements of traditional Ottoman architecture and marks associated with military symbolism. The latter is most at the entrance gate - central Constantinople (Bender) from the south, west Timishoarsky (Iasi, Izmail), northeastern Water (Podolsk) and southeastern covertly (Kamenetz). Their facades but secretly adorned the top of the chronogram "of gold on blue, made letters taliks (a form of Arabic script)." These poetic inscriptions were dedicated to significant events and glorified action Pasha. In the picture gate of Constantinople, made by the Russian military at the end of the XVIII century. This chronogram surround also numerous drawings, of which only a few have survived. The majority of these drawings ("the sword of Ali", "heart", "crossed the snake", "anchor", "rosette", "fish", "minaret") - is the emblem Janissary Horta - military units that served in the fortress . Similarly, emblems, symbols janissaries attached special importance, they are proud of them and reproduced on banners, tents, barracks walls, like tattoos on the body, and the like.

The result is a grand building of a new fortress was succinctly described by the Moldovan and Russian statesman Dmitry Kantemir: ". in 1712 the Turks captured the fortress, partially destroyed the old walls, but it was surrounded by sturdy structures for new models, increasing them by more than half, so that Now it is rightly regarded as the best and the strongest fortress of Moldova. " Although contemporaries and considered new Khotyn fortress "the best and the strongest" in the construction were not considered innovative at the time and form of technology, prevailing in European military engineering science, and being based on the outdated principles of the French fortification system. After all, before the end of the XVII century. and the long curtains, and finally faceted bastions disappeared from European defense architecture because of the impossibility of adequate protection against artillery.

Despite this, during the XVIII Art. the fortress was never taken by storm, but surrendered three times - in 1739, 1769 and 1788 The last time it happened during the Russian-Austro-Turkish War of 1787-1791., when Galicia-Bukovina body imperial troops under the command of Prince Ivan at Coburg support of Russian troops blocked the Khotyn fortress in May 1788 and after fierce fighting September 29, 1788 forced its garrison to surrender on honorable terms. Hazyaynuyuchy in Khotyn in 1793, the Austrians did not manage to significantly affect the architecture of the fortress complex at the premises of the mosque valide-Sultan, which was adapted for housing for the Commandant, officers and the garrison priest deliberately destroyed before the evacuation of troops in February 1793 True, this time from the past the greatness of this building there is not much when Russian troops seized the fortress August 31, 1739, they damaged the roof and the floor of the mosque, broke the sarcophagus Abdi Pasha and took a rich Turkish library, which is stored at the mosque. Of course, the Turks then able to restore their places of worship.

Turkish authorities, who returned in 1793, lasted only until the new Turkish-Russian war in 1806, at the beginning of which the royal army occupied Khotyn fortress and held it up to the signing of the Treaty of Bucharest May 28, 1812 According to the terms of the Dniester-Prut interfluve with Khotinshchina inclusive, It became part of the Russian Empire. But even before the formal transfer of these territories in chief of the Moldavian Army General MI Golenishtchev-Kutuzov March 14, 1812 sent a secret letter privy councilor presiding sofa principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, Senator B. Red Milashevich with a request to assist the tasks entrusted "with the highest command of His Imperial Majesty" on military engineer Major General Harting, which went into Khotyn for "amendments and strengthen" Fortress "in the case of rainfall." In order Harting was supposed to provide 2,000 workers with his "entrenching tools" and 150 wagons. Already in the 20 days of March came the first thousand people, and in the autumn of 1812 a whole day zadiyuvalosya to 11 thousand. Working with different tsinutov, and the number of wagons has grown to 250. The commandant of the fortress at that time was known Major General M . I. Liders, veteran of the war of 1787-1791., who distinguished himself during the assault Ochakov, in 1805 fought at Austerlitz, in 1809, was seriously wounded in the assault Braila. October 7, 1810 he was appointed commandant of Khotin, and October 25 - also the commander of the garrison battalion Khotyn. Since August 1812 participated in the battles with the French, but at the end of December 1812 he was ordered to return to the city and begin to fulfill the commandant service, he and his nose to the resignation in 1820

However, not all commanders Khotyn fortress noted such heroism. One of the first long held the position Colonel Hesse, but in May 1808 it had opened proceedings on complaints from residents of Khotyn Ivan Petrov for the appropriation of money, bills and things. Soon, he was removed from his post, and in the next case it (debt collection for firewood merchant Kamenetskii Azarsovu) already featured different Khotyn fortress commander - Colonel Baron Lange, and performed these duties until the appointment of M. Lüders.

In addition to purely repair work, while in the fortress under the Russian submission was conducted and determined its reconstruction, after which a military object was assigned the second rank. Probably in the western curtain was made one more entry, so-called. "Russian Gate", was situated between the western and north-western bastion. In addition, in another it was resolved entrance to the castle - punched holes in the second tier of the gate tower, which led to the bridge on the same support, that now serves as the input. The room of the mosque was used as a warehouse for food supplies.

During the Russian-Turkish war of 1828-1829. The Khotyn were units of the 6th Corps Second Russian army. In 1830-1832 gg. For the religious needs of the military garrison there was the church of St. Alexander Nevsky, built by architect Shtauberga in the neoclassical style of the architecture of Orthodox religious buildings I floor. XIX century. In 1994 .. It was rebuilt, was consecrated and now - a working temple of the UOC-of Chernivtsi Bukovina diocese.

After the defeat of Russia in the Crimean War (in 1856 ..) Status Khotyn fortress as a military facility was canceled, she was transferred to the civilian agency. By order of the commander of the 5 Army Corps fortified buildings intended for the staff and the hospital Modlin Infantry Regiment, stationed in Khotin, but for a long time they were not used in full because of unfitness: even then, most of stone were in a dilapidated condition and discussions between Hotinsky City Council and Bessarabian Governor-General ML Fonton de Verrayonom who and at whose expense will repair them, protracted for years, did not produce results.

Citadel, and with it the new fortress gradually falling into disrepair. The destruction deepened fighting two world wars - at the beginning of July 1941 of the retreating Red Army blew up the minaret, from which there is only a basement staircase.

Restoration work began only in the 60s. Twentieth century. When in 1963. Facilities fortress was taken on the account as a monument of national importance. In 2000. Created Historical and Architectural Reserve "Khotyn fortress", which in August 2007, among others, was the winner of the campaign "7 Wonders of Ukraine".


Battle of Khotyn (1673)

The Battle of Khotyn või Battle of Chocim või Hotin War [1] was a battle held on 11 November 1673, where Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth forces under hetman Jan Sobieski defeated Ottoman Empire forces under Hussain Pasha. It reversed the fortunes of the previous year, when Commonwealth weakness led to the signing of the Peace of Buczacz, and allowed Jan Sobieski to win the upcoming royal election and become the king of Poland.

Polish-Lithuanian forces and Wallachian regiments were 30 thousand strong. The Turks commanded 35 thousand troops and 120 guns. In this battle rockets of Kazimierz Siemienowicz were deployed successfully. The victory allowed the Poles to revoke the unfavourable Peace of Buczacz and set the stage for the role Sobieski was to play in the Battle of Vienna in 1683.

Khotyn (Polish : Chocim Romanian : Hotin Turkish : Hotin Russian : Хоти́н , translit. Khotin) was conquered and controlled by many different states, resulting in many name changes. Other name variations include Chotynvõi Choczim (especially in Polish).


The final stage of the war [ edit | allika muutmine]

In 1739, the Russian army, commanded by Field Marshal Münnich, crossed the Dnieper, defeated the Turks at Stavuchany and occupied the fortress of Khotin (August 19) and Iaşi. However, Austria was defeated by the Turks at Grocka and signed a separate treaty in Belgrade with the Ottoman Empire on August 21. Ζ] This, coupled with the imminent threat of the Swedish invasion, forced Russia to sign the Treaty of Niš with Turkey on September 29, which ended the war. Η ]


Hussaria at Vienna 1683

There is no English equivalent for “hussaria”, Polish armored cavalry of the 16th and 17th centuries. This name should not be confused with that of the huzars, the light cavalry used in the 18th and 19th centuries by European armies. The name “husar” in the 14th century denoted a mounted knight in southern Slavic languages. As the Turkish empire expanded deeper into Southern Europe in the 14th and 15th centuries, many refugees found themselves in Hungary, where they were welcomed because of their experience in fighting against Turks. Troops of “husars” were then formed in Hungary. Thanks to their contact with the advanced military arts of the East, the “husar” troops fought as units capable of maneuvering on the battlefield. The technique was quite new in Europe at the time: a typical knights’ battle was a series of duels which commanders had very little influenced over once started.

Poland had very close ties with Hungary, and by the end of the 15th century the first hussar troops were created to serve as light cavalry. In a few generations they evolved into armored assault cavalry, which was unique in all of Europe, the pride of the Polish army until the end of the 17th century. The Polish warfare evolved differently than that of western Europeans, whose infantry was becoming much more important than cavalry. Several factors caused this unique evolution:

Until the 17th century, the Commonwealth of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was still expanding, reaching nearly 1million km2 (about 390,000 square miles). Distances were large compared to other parts of Europe and armies were required to move quickly, so cavalry became predominant.

Because of the location of the Commonwealth formed by the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, it was the bridge between East and West. At the time of interest it had borders with:

– Russia in the Northeast. Russia was not yet a super power, but its strength was growing and clashes were escalating.

– Tartars in the Southeast, the remnants of Genghis Khan’s successors onslaught on Europe during the 13th century. They were a troublesome enemy who made yearly raids on the southern part of the state.

– Turkey in the South. Moslem Turkey was a super power of the time. In the 17th century, Turkey’s European holdings included Greece, all of the Balkans, today’s Romania, and Hungary, and it was close to conquering the Austrian Empire and other parts of Europe.

– Austrian Empire and German States in the West

– Sweden in the North. Sweden was then a very aggressive state, already occupying today’s Finland, Latvia, Estonia, and Northern Germany, with aspirations of becoming the dominant Baltic power.

Each of the neighbors applied different military techniques, so Poland and Lithuania had to invent their own tactics to face each one.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, Poland and Lithuania produced a succession of great commanders-in-chief which was without precedence in its history, and has not been eclipsed since. A chronological list of the names includes: Konstanty Ostrogski, Jan Tarnowski, Stefan Batory (King), Jan Zamoyski, Mikolaj Radziwil, Krzysztof Radziwil, Karol Chodkiewicz, Stanislaw Zolkiewski, Stanislaw Lubomirski, Stanislaw Koniecpolski, Jeremi Wisniowiecki, Stefan Czarniecki, and Jan Sobieski (King).

* Polish ideals of manhood during the Renaissance and early Baroque

Young men of nobility, besides acquiring an education, were expected to spend at least a few years in military service and later join the army when the need arose. From childhood, they were raised to be excellent horsemen and men-at-arms. Thus they were first-class military material.

Due to these factors, cavalry usually constituted 80% of Polish forces during most campaigns. Hussaria was assault cavalry, whose main task was breaching enemy formations with charges at top speed. Its role was similar to that of armored divisions used to break lines during WWII.

Armor, Armament and Wings

Hussaria was the cream of the Polish army and mainly, though not exclusively, nobility served in its ranks and files. Once in service, soldiers were paid, but they were responsible for equipping themselves and their squires at considerable cost. To start with, each soldier and his squires had to have good horses. The armor was light for speed and protected the arms and upper parts of the body. The armament consisted of 15-foot-long lances (the only equipment provided by the King), sabers, estocs (piercing rapiers), and pistols. Long firearms were recommended, but not required until the late 17th century. Many soldiers had bows, which (especially Tartar or Turkish bows) still had better range and were easier to use than early firearms.

The famous wings were not obligatory however, many soldiers of hussaria used them. The wings were light wooden frames with rows of feathers and were attached to the back of the armor, sometimes to the saddle. Their purpose was not just decorative. During high-speed charges, the wings produced a buzzing sound which frightened enemy horses and disturbed enemy troops who saw winged horsemen charging at them. Also, the Tartars’ lasso, or “arkan”, was difficult to use against soldiers with wings protruding above their heads. Wings, though not universally used, were the distinctive feature of hussaria and became its symbol. Today, hussaria wings are present in emblems of the Polish Air Force and Armored Divisions.

Hussaria was considered to be heavy assault cavalry only by the Polish and Lithuanian army. The West did not have this type of cavalry, and hussaria was considered light by western standards of speed and tactics. The main task of hussaria during battle was to breach enemy formations. Polish commanders of the 16th and 17th centuries realized that the effectiveness of firearms was still very limited, so a charge by good horsemen had to endure at most one salvo before reaching the enemy with lances and sabers. This was sound reasoning, and hussaria won most battles they fought, in many cases against foes of far greater numbers. Victory by outnumbered forces is nothing special in the history of warfare provided that the troops used are well trained and bolstered with high morale. This was the case of hussaria for the span of nearly two centuries.

In the initial phases of a charge, hussaria loosened and tightened their formation a few times in order to diminish the effect of enemy fire. The charge was started at low speed and riders accelerated during its progress, reaching top speed just before the enemy. This not only preserved the horses’ strength, but also had psychological effects on the enemy who saw the preliminaries to the charge. Extremely long but light lances were used to break opponents’ formations, and were supposed to break during the clash. After the lances were gone, sabers and estocs were used.

When the first charge was not successful, hussaria withdrew and charged again. There were battles in which the same troops charged 10 times and later helped pursue the enemy. This was possible only with highly trained units that could withdraw and regroup in an orderly manner.

Except in a few cases, casualties suffered by hussaria were very low, and this was the best proof of their worth, as well as proof of the talent of Polish commanders of the time.

The list of major battles won by Polish and Lithuanian armies using hussaria is given in the appendix. A short description of the famous battle of Vienna follows.

Battle of Vienna, Sep 12, 1683

This battle is classified by historians as one of the most decisive battles of the world. The Turkish Empire was then at the peak of its power and occupied most of southeastern Europe. A powerful Turkish army of 110,000 led by Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa laid siege to Vienna in August 1683. The Turks’ seizure of the city would mean the fall of the Austrian Empire, leaving the middle of Europe open to Turkish invasion, and would probably have changed the course of history of Christendom and European civilization.

Part of the Austrian army defended the city. The rest, though bolstered by German troops, were unable to face the Turks on their own, so awaited the coming of the Polish army. Polish relations with Austria and Germans were not very friendly, but the King of Poland, Jan III Sobieski, understood very well that the fall of Vienna would be disastrous for his country and the rest of Europe. In the spring of 1683, a pact of mutual aid against Turkish attack was signed between the Polish King and the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I of Austria.

The Polish army of 27,000 soldiers, half of which was cavalry including 3,300 hussars, was assembled in the second half of August, and because of the gravity of the situation the King marched south, not waiting for the Lithuanians. Near Vienna, Polish forces were joined by Austrian and German troops, and the allied army totaled about 75,000 soldiers. According to the pact, the Polish King became the commander-in-chief. His military genius and victories over past 20 years were all too well known. During the council of war on Sep 3, the King devised a battle plan for the allied forces.

On Sep 12, the army approached Vienna and took positions against the Turks besieging the city. A small hussaria unit was sent to charge enemy lines to examine the terrain and explore the possibility of an all-out assault. The result was positive, and in spite of the late afternoon start, the King decided to attack with all allied cavalry to prevent the Turks from preparing stronger defenses. Polish hussaria attacked in the center and on the right wing and took the Turkish camp, together with the palace-like tents of Kara Mustafa and an enormous booty. The Austrians and Germans charged on the left and also broke enemy lines. The Turkish army was completely defeated. The war lasted a few more months, but from that day on, the Turkish Empire was on retreat in southeast Europe.

Turkish standards and other trophies were sent to the Pope in Rome and victory was celebrated with solemn masses all over Europe.

Legend has it that the habit of drinking coffee was spread in Europe after the battle. This is only partially true and may be the case for only Vienna and its famous coffee. In Poland, coffee became popular 10 years earlier after the second battle of Khotin in 1673. In southern Europe, coffee was known prior to the battle.

In 1690 one of the constellations was named “Scutum Sobieskii” (Sobieski’s Shield) to commemorate the battle.

[May I add: Polish children are still brought up to revere ‘Winged Hussars’ and ‘Angels’ equally!]

Appendix: Battles won with Hussaria

Here is a list of major battles won by Polish and Lithuanian forces in the 16th and 17th centuries, some won solely by cavalry. Where the army was led by Lithuanian commanders, a note is made.

* 1514 – Orsza, against Russia. Pictures of this battle show hussaria already equipped with wings. Commander Konstanty Ostrogski of Lithuania

* 1531 – Obertyn, against Moldavia. Commander Jan Tarnowski

* 1579-1581 – three succesful wars against Russia with cavalry raids. Commanders King Stefan Batory, Jan Zamoyski, Mikolaj, and Krzysztof Radziwil of Lithuania. During Stefan Batory’s reign King’s Regulations were issued giving hussaria its final shape

* 1588 –Byczyna, against domestic rebels and Austrian troops. Commander Jan Zamoyski

* 1595 – Solonica, against Ukrainian rebels. Commander Stanislaw Zolkiewski

* 1605 – Kircholm, pure cavalry battle against Swedes. Commander Karol Chodkiewicz of Lithuania

* 1610 – Kluszyn, pure cavalry battle against Russians. Commander Stanislaw Zolkiewski. The battle in which some hussaria units attacked ten times

* 1621 – defense of trenches near Khotin against Turkish army. Together with other troops, hussaria were used in and outside the trenches. Commanders Karol Chodkiewicz of Lithuania and Stanislaw Lubomirski

* 1629 – Trzciana, pure cavalry battle against Swedes. Commander Stanislaw Koniecpolski

* 1637 – Kumejki, against Ukrainian rebels. Commander Mikolaj Potocki

* 1644 – Ochmatow against Tatars, Commanders Stanislaw Koniecpolski and Jeremi Wisniowiecki

* 1649 – defense of trenches of Zbarazh against Ukrainian rebels and Tatars. As in Khotin, hussaria were used with other troops in and outside the trenches. Commander Jeremi Wisniowiecki

* 1651 – Beresteczko against Ukrainian rebels and Tartars. Commanders King Jan Kazimierz and Jeremi Wisniowiecki

* 1656 – battle of Warsaw against Swedes. An incredible charge of hussaria led by Aleksander Polubinski of Lithuania saved the Polish-Lithuanian army despite their losing the battle

* 1660s – battles against Swedes and rebelling Ukrainians. Commander Stefan Czarniecki

* late 1660s – numerous battles against Tartars and Turks. Commander Jan Sobieski

* 1673 – Khotin again. This time besieging an entrenched Turkish army. Hussaria were used

* for the final assault once breaches in the trenches were done. Commander Jan Sobieski was crowned King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania next year.

* 1683 – relief of Vienna besieged by Turkish army. One of the battles that decided the fate of Europe. Commander Jan III Sobieski King of Poland

1. Cichowski, Jerzy. Husaria /, Jerzy Cichowski, Andrzej Szulczynski. Wyd. Warszawa : Wydawn. Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowej, 1977

2. Ksiega jazdy polskiej /, [autorzy Boleslaw Wieniawa-Dlugoszowski … et al.]. Warszawa : [s.n.], 1938

3. Jasienica, Pawel. Rzeczpospolita obojga narodów. Inglise. The Commonwealth of both nations/, by Pawel Jasienica translated by Alexander Jordan. Miami : American Institute of Polish Culture New York: Hippocrene Books, 1987

4. Rosciszewski, Piotr. Szlak Husarii Polskiej : przewodnik /, Piotr Rosciszewski. Wyd. Gliwice : Polskie Towarzystwo Turystyczno-Krajoznawcze. Oddzial w Gliwicach, 1984


Book Review of Empire and Military Revolution in Eastern Europe: Russia’s Turkish Wars in the Eighteenth Century

Brian L. Davies. Empire and Military Revolution in Eastern Europe: Russia’s Turkish Wars in the Eighteenth Century. Continuum Studies in Military History. London, England: Continuum International, 2011. ISBN 978-1-4411-7004-0. Kaart. Märkused. Bibliography. Indeks. Lk. ix, 364. $120.00.

Originally posted in Military History (27 July 2012)

In this study, Dr Brian L. Davies, a Professor of History at the University of Texas at San Antonio, examines Russia’s wars and military campaigns against the Ottoman Empire during the eighteenth century. The author stresses Russian military reforms from Peter I of Russia through the early reign of Catherine II. Moreover, the author devotes detailed attention to the players involved in Russian foreign affairs, including the Ottoman Turks, Crimean Khanate, Ukrainian Cossacks, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sweden, and others. His previous works include State Power and Community in Early Modern Russia: The Case of Kozlov, 1635-1649 (2004) and Warfare, State and Society on the Black Sea Steppe, 1500-1700 (2007). He has also recently edited Warfare in Eastern Europe, 1500-1800 (2012).

In 1686, Russia (Muscovy) joined the alliance of the Holy Roman Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice, and the Papacy, against the Ottoman Turks. The War of the Holy League (1683-99) had begun with the Turkish invasion of Austrian Habsburg territories and the siege of Vienna in 1683. As part of this alliance, Russia launched unsuccessful campaigns against the Crimean Tatars in 1687 and 1689. After taking control of Russia from his half-sister Sophia, Peter I sought expansion south towards the Black Sea. As such, Russia came into conflict with the Crimean Tatars and the Ottoman Turks. His first military campaign to capture the Ottoman fortress of Azov in 1695 failed, but the following campaign, employing ships, captured Azov in 1696, and Russia founded the first Russian naval base at Taganrog. The first phase of Peter I’s struggle against the Ottoman Turks ended with the Peace of Constantinople (1700).

Davies describes Peter I’s foreign policy, the Russian army, and military events dealing with the Sweden in the Baltic Region and the Ottoman Turks in the south. In 1700, Peter I allied with Denmark, Saxony, and Poland-Lithuania in an attack on the Swedish Empire, beginning the Great Northern War (1700-1721). But, Sweden, led by Charles XII, defeated the Danes (1700) and then the Russians at Narva (1700), followed by an invasion of Poland-Lithuania in 1701. This gave Russia the opportunity to recover from defeat and begin reforming the army. Therefore, when the Swedish army turned and invaded the Ukraine several years later, the tsar commanded a rebuilt military reformed and trained along western lines. Peter I defeated Charles XII at the battle of Poltava in 1709, forcing the Swedish king to retreat to the Ottoman Empire. Subsequently, Sultan Ahmed III declared war against Russia in 1710, leading to Peter I’s disastrous Pruth Campaign. In this campaign the Russians attempted to invade Moldavia but were surrounded and defeated in the decisive battle of Stanileşti in July 1711. In the Treaty of Pruth (1711), Peter I was forced to give up Azov and several fortresses, including Taganrog, were to be demolished.

Davies provides a valuable depiction of Russian military operations during the Russo-Turkish War of 1736-1739. He argues that Field Marshal Burckhard Christoph von Münnich and General Peter Lacy gained valuable experience during each annual military campaign and gradually improved the military effectiveness of the Russian army. This included finding revenue sources as well as increasing military discipline, logistics, and experimenting with new tactics. The first campaign, in 1736, resulted in Münnich capturing the Turkish fortifications at Perekop and then occupying the Crimean capital of Bakhchisarai. But, the lack of supplies and the outbreak of disease forced the Russians to retreat to the Ukraine. Lacy, however, employed a flotilla to assist his army in capturing the fortress of Azov. Then, in 1737, Münnich captured the Ottoman fortress of Ochakov while Lacy invaded the Crimea and captured Karasubazar. The author points out that the Russians once again had to withdraw from the Crimea because of the lack of supplies. In the meantime, in 1737, Habsburg Austria, allied to Russia, went to war against the Ottoman Turks (the Austro-Turkish War of 1737-1739). Ottoman forces, however, defeated the Austrians at Banja Luka (1737) and Grocka (1739), and then besieged and captured Belgrade (1739). In the meantime, Münnich defeated the Turks at Stavuchany and occupied the fortress of Khotin in Moldavia in 1739. The Turkish defeat of Austria at the battle of Grocka and the capture of Belgrade resulted in the Habsburgs negotiating a separate peace in the Treaty of Belgrade (1739). The loss of the Austrian alliance, along with the threat of a Swedish invasion in the north, forced Russia to agree to end the conflict in the Peace of Niš. Russia had to give up its claims to the Crimea and Moldavia.

In the next few decades Russia became the strongest power in southeastern Europe. The Russian Empire expanded through the employment of military power. Russian military power as the author shows had been strengthened by an improved military administration, tighter central control over military finances, and an improved logistical system. The Austrian Empire was weakened by the expense of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) and Seven Years War (1756-1763). The Ottoman Empire was destabilized by widespread revolts and the Persian threat. War between Catherine II’s Russia and the Ottomans (the Russo-Turkish War of 1668-1774) broke out after several border clashes. In 1769, the Russian army, commanded by Field Marshal A.M. Golitsyn, invaded Moldavia and captured the fortress at Khotin and the capital of Iasi (Jassy). Then, as Davies stresses, the Russian army, under the command of Peter Aleksandrovich Rumiantsev, won a “series of victories over much larger Ottoman and Tatar forces, victories more decisive and lopsided than had ever occurred before” (p.267). The Russians marched south and occupied the Wallachian capital of Bucharest. The Russians defeated the Turks at Larga, captured the fortress at Bender, won a victory at Kagul, and routed the Turks at Kartala. Meanwhile, in 1770, the Russian Baltic Sea fleet sailed from northern Europe to the Aegean Sea and defeated an Ottoman fleet at Chesme off the coast of Asia Minor. Next, in 1771, the Russian army under V.M. Dolgorukov invaded, captured, and held the Crimean Peninsula, including the capital Bakhchisari. This campaign ended the threat of the Crimean Khanate to Russia’s southern frontier that had existed for 260 years (p.271). Meanwhile, Rumiantsev captured the Ottoman fortresses in the eastern Danubian Region.

At this point, in 1772, Sultan Mustapha III of the Ottoman Empire opened up peace talks with Russia. The Turks stretched out the peace negotiations with Russia. The Sublime Porte realized that Austria, Prussia, and Britain feared Russian territorial expansion and the disruption of the European balance of power. Austria was concerned about the growth of Russian power in Moldavia and Wallachia and the threat to the Austrian sphere of influence in the region. In fact, in 1771, Emperor Joseph II of Austria had deployed troops to Hungary to restrain Russia in Moldavia and Wallachia. He even began to negotiate an Austro-Turkish alliance against Russia. An Austro-Russian war was avoided by Catherine II agreeing to Frederick II of Prussia’s proposal for the First Partition of Poland (1772) to satisfy Austrian and Prussian demands for territorial expansion as compensation for Russian territorial aggrandizement. Then, to force the Sultan to come to terms, Catherine II sent Rumiantsev’s army across the Danube River into Silistria in 1773-1774. Major General Aleksandr Suvorov defeated the Turks at Turtukai in 1773 and Kozluji in 1774. As a result, the Sublime Porte agreed to the Peace of Kuchuk-Kainarji in Bulgaria. In this settlement, Russia agreed to withdraw from Moldavia and Wallachia. However, Russia gained some territory in the southern Ukraine, northern Caucasus, and the Crimea. Russia regained Azov and the seaports of Kerch and Enikale, thus allowing Russian merchant and naval ships access to the Black Sea and the ability to pass through the Turkish Straits into the Mediterranean. Moreover, the Crimea became a Russian protectorate, and would be annexed by Russia in 1783.

Davies asks was there a Russian military revolution during the eighteenth century that led to Russia’s success against the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774? The author points out that most historians believe that the new tactical and strategic thinking displayed by Rumiantsev, Potemkin, and Suvorov during the conflict marked a radical change from the military doctrine of the Seven Years War. But Davies thinks that the so-called Russian military revolution in tactics and strategy has been overstated (p.279). Russia did adopt recent innovations in military technique from the West. Even so, another reason for the overwhelming Russian military victory is the relative decline of Ottoman military power in the late eighteenth century. Davies also considers as important “the long-term accumulation of strategic advantage from Russia’s more flexible taxation and military finance practices and her more aggressive and opportunistic exploitation of the weakness of frontier politics. [T]he end of the war did mark a geopolitical ‘revolution’ in the sense that it reversed power relations in Pontic and Danubian Europe” (p.283).

Davies provides a detailed study of Russian mobilization of military resources for expansion to the southern steppe frontier and how Russian army rolled back the power of competitors, such as the independent Cossack hosts, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Crimean Khanate, Ottoman Empire, and others in the region. Russian military operations grew in size and success against the Ottoman Empire in the eighteenth century. This reader is looking forward to a promised subsequent volume that will discuss Catherine II’s later wars against the Ottoman Turks. The present study is recommended to those students and scholars interested in the military history of East Europe.

Dr William Young
University of North Dakota
Grand Forks, North Dakota


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