Vana -Rooma

Vana -Rooma


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6. Vana -Rooma


Vanade roomlaste jaoks polnud Veenus planeet, vaid taevakeha: ta oli armastuse ja ilu jumalanna.

Roomlased ehitasid hiiglasliku suurusega impeeriumi. Oma kõrghetkel hõlmas see peaaegu kogu Euroopa mandrit, samuti Lähis -Ida ja Aafrika osi.

Rooma impeeriumi kombitsad ulatusid Inglismaalt Egiptuseni, Hispaaniast Iraakini ja Lõuna -Venemaalt Marokoni. Veelgi olulisem on see, et Vana -Rooma tsivilisatsioon õitses peaaegu tuhat aastat. Roomlaste mõju kõigi nende rahvaste üle kogu selle aja jooksul on vastuolus.

Pärast ristiusu vastuvõtmist 4. sajandil m.a.j levitasid roomlased seda oma impeeriumi igasse nurka. Samuti tõid nad oma seaduste ja korra kõikidele vallutatud territooriumidele. Ladina keel, roomlaste keel, sai aluseks mitmele kaasaegsele Euroopa keelele, sealhulgas itaalia, prantsuse ja hispaania keelele.


Laienemise kõrghetkel (umbes 120 m.a.j.) hõlmas Rooma impeerium peaaegu kõiki Vahemere ümbrust.

Roomlased olid eriti osavad halduses, organiseerimises ja inseneriteaduses. Neil oli kõrgelt koolitatud ja distsiplineeritud sõjavägi ning tõhus bürokraatia. Ilma nende omadusteta poleks roomlased kunagi suutnud oma laialivalguvat impeeriumi juhtida. Teiste intellektuaalsete tegevuste osas ei olnud nad aga nii ajendatud ega originaalsed.

Tegelikult võtsid ja kopeerisid roomlased suures osas kreeka kunsti, kirjandust, filosoofiat ja isegi religiooni. Roomlastel oli sama jumalate komplekt kui kreeklastel, kuid erinevate nimedega. Rooma mütoloogias sai Zeus Jupiteriks, Hera Junoks, Ares Marsiks ja Athena Minervaks. Roomlased aga levitasid neid laenatud ideid kõikjale, kuhu nad läksid.

Romulus ja Remus

Rooma mütoloogia kohaselt mängisid kaksikvennad Rooma rajamisel olulist rolli. Need vennad, nimega Romulus ja Remus, olid Rooma sõjajumala Marsi pojad. Sünnil maha jäetud kaksikud kasvatas hunt.

Kui nad vanemaks said, otsustasid nad rajada linna Tiberi jõe äärde selle koha lähedale, kus nad maha jäeti. Igaüks valis mäe, millel asumist alustada.

Nagu vendade seas sageli juhtub, viisid vaidlused tüli ja kakluseni. Vihastades Remuse mõnitamise peale, tappis Romulus vihahoos oma venna. Romulus ehitas linna, mis sai lõpuks Roomaks ja mille nimi on muidugi Romuluse järgi.

Nagu selgus, valis Romulus oma linna jaoks väga hea koha. Rooma asus Tiberi jõe ääres umbes 15 miili kaugusel Vahemerest sisemaal. Roomlastel oli lihtne juurdepääs merele ja nad olid mõnevõrra kaitstud meresõidu eest. Samuti asus Rooma keset Itaalia poolsaart, saapakujuline maismaa Kreekast läänes. Sellest kesksest positsioonist said roomlased hõlpsasti juurde pääseda ja kontrollida kõike seda, mis on tänapäeva Itaalia riik.

Lõpuks võimaldas Itaalia poolsaare keskne asukoht Vahemere ääres roomlastel kaubelda ja suhelda Vahemere maailma iga osaga.


Religioon

Ladina kirjandus

Nagu tänapäeval, püüdsid paljud iidsed roomlased kirjutamisega elatist teenida. Mõni loeks oma tööd avalikult, näiteks muusik, kes esineb tänaval, või nagu autor, kes reklaamib täna raamatupoes uut väljaannet.

Rooma mütoloogia

Rooma mütoloogia on traditsiooniliste lugude, uskumuste ja rituaalide kogum, millega roomlased kirjeldasid Rooma tsivilisatsiooni, kultuuri, ajalugu ja religiooni.

Romulus ja Remus

Romulus ja Remus on kaks legendaarset tegelast, keda seostatakse Rooma tsivilisatsiooni rajamise müüdiga.


Sisu

Lisateavet ja Rooma kui täieliku tsivilisatsiooni ajalugu vt Vana -Rooma.

Rooma ajajoon
Rooma kuningriik ja vabariik
753 eKr Legendi järgi asutas Romulus Rooma.
753–509 eKr Rooma seitsme kuninga reegel.
509 eKr Vabariigi loomine.
390 eKr Gallased tungivad Rooma. Rooma vallandati.
264–146 eKr Puunia sõjad.
146–44 eKr Sotsiaalsed ja kodusõjad. Marius, Sulla, Pompeius ja Caesar.
44 eKr Julius Caesar mõrvati.

Varasem ajalugu Redigeeri

Rooma piirkonna inimeste okupeerimise kohta on arheoloogilisi tõendeid vähemalt 5000 aasta tagant, kuid palju nooremate prahtide tihe kiht varjab paleoliitikumi ja neoliitikumi paiku. [2] Tõendeid, mis viitavad linna iidsele alusele, varjab ka legend Rooma algusest Romuluse ja Remusega.

Rooma asutamise traditsiooniline kuupäev on 753-04-21 eKr, järgides Marcus Terentius Varrot, [3] ning linn ja seda ümbritsev Latiumi piirkond on sellest ajast alates olnud vähese katkestuseta. 2014. aastal tehtud väljakaevamiste käigus on selgunud müür, mis on ehitatud ammu enne linna ametlikku asutamisaastat. Arheoloogid avastasid kiviaia ja keraamikatükid, mis pärinevad 9. sajandist e.m.a ja 8. sajandi algusest e.m.a., ja on tõendeid inimeste kohta, kes saabusid Palatineuse mäele juba 10. sajandil e.m.a. [4] [5]

Sant'Omobono piirkonna ala on otsustava tähtsusega, et mõista sellega seotud monumentalisatsiooni, linnastumise ja riigi kujunemise protsesse hilises arhailises perioodis. Sant'Omobono templikoht pärineb 7. – 6. Sajandist e.m.a., mistõttu on need vanimad teadaolevad templijäänused Roomas. [6]

Rooma päritolu legend Muuda

Arvatakse, et linna nime päritolu on tuntud asutaja ja esimene valitseja, legendaarne Romulus. [7] Räägitakse, et Romulus ja tema kaksikvend Remus, jumala Marsi näilised pojad ja Trooja kangelase Aenease järeltulijad, said hüljatud pärast hülgamist, seejärel otsustasid nad linna ehitada. Vennad vaidlesid, Romulus tappis Remuse ja pani siis linnale nime Rooma. Pärast Rooma asutamist ja nimetamist (nagu lugu räägib) lubas ta kõikide klasside meestel tulla kodanikena Rooma, sealhulgas orjad ja vabadikud. [8] Et oma kodanikele naisi varustada, kutsus Romulus naaberhõimud Rooma festivalile, kus ta röövis paljusid nende noori naisi (tuntud kui Sabine naiste vägistamine). Pärast järgnevat sõda sabiinidega jagas Romulus kuningavõimu Sabine'i kuninga Titus Tatiusega. [9] Romulus valis 100 kõige õilsamat meest Rooma senati moodustamiseks kuninga nõuandvaks koguks. Neid mehi nimetas ta patruseks ja nende järglastest said patriitsid. Ta lõi kolm sajandit võrdõiguslikkust: Ramnes (tähendab roomlased), Tities (Sabine'i kuninga järgi) ja Luceres (etruskid). Samuti jagas ta elanikkonna kolmekümneks kuuriaks, mis said nime kolmekümne Sabine naise järgi, kes olid sekkunud Romuluse ja Tatiuse vahelise sõja lõpetamiseks. Kurauad moodustasid Comitia Curiata hääletusüksused. [10]

Rooma nimele on püütud leida keelelist juuri. Võimaluste hulka kuulub tuletamine kreeka keelest Ῥώμη, mis tähendab vaprust, julgust [11] võimalik, et seos on juurega *rumm-, "lutti", teoreetilise viitega totemhundile, kes võttis vastu ja imetas sugulusnimelisi kaksikuid. Tundub, et linna etruski nimi on olnud Ruma. [12] Võrdle ka Rumon, Tiberi jõe endine nimi. Selle edasine etümoloogia jääb teadmata, nagu enamiku etruski sõnade puhul. Thomas G. Tucker Ladina ladus etümoloogiline sõnaraamat (1931) viitab sellele, et nimi on tõenäoliselt pärit *urobsma (vrd. urbs, robur) ja muidu "aga vähem tõenäoline" *urosma "mägi" (vrd Skt. varsman- "kõrgus, punkt," vana slaavi врьхъ "tipp, tipp", Russ. верх "ülalt üles suund", Lith. virsus "ülemine").

Linna moodustamine Muuda

Rooma kasvas välja Palatineuse mäe ja ümbritsevate mägede pastoraalsetest asulatest, mis asusid Tiberi lõunaküljel umbes 30 km (19 miili) kaugusel Türreeni merest. Quirinal Hill oli tõenäoliselt sabiinide, teise itaalia keelt kõneleva rahva, eelpost. Selles kohas moodustab Tiber Z-kujulise kõvera, mis sisaldab saart, kus jõgi saab tiirutada. Jõe ja fordi tõttu oli Rooma jõeorgu järgiva liikluse ning poolsaare lääneküljel põhja ja lõuna poole sõitvate kaupmeeste ristteel.

Arheoloogilised leiud on kinnitanud, et 8. sajandil eKr, tulevase Rooma piirkonnas, oli kaks kindlustatud asulat: Rumi Palatine'i mäel ja Titientes Quirinali mäel, mida toetasid lähedalasuvates metsades elavad luceerid. [13] Need olid lihtsalt kolm paljudest itaalia keelt kõnelevatest kogukondadest, mis eksisteerisid Latiumis, Itaalia poolsaare tasandikul, 1. aastatuhandel eKr. Itaalia rahvaste päritolu peitub eelajaloos ja pole seetõttu täpselt teada, kuid nende indoeuroopa keeled rändasid idast II aastatuhande teisel poolel eKr.

Dionysius Halicarnassose sõnul pidasid paljud Rooma ajaloolased (sealhulgas Porcius Cato ja Gaius Sempronius) roomlaste (aborigeenide järeltulijad) päritolu kreeklasteks, hoolimata asjaolust, et nende teadmised pärinesid kreeka legendaarsetest lugudest. [14] Sabineid mainiti esmakordselt Dionysiuse jutustuses, kuna nad vallutasid üllatuslikult Lista linna, mida peeti aborigeenide emalinnaks. [15]

Kaldkirjas kontekst Muuda

Selle piirkonna itaalia kõnelejate hulka kuulusid latinlased (läänes), sabiinid (Tiberi ülemises orus), umbrlased (kirdeosas), samniidid (lõunas), oskanid jt. 8. sajandil eKr jagasid nad poolsaart veel kahe suure rahvusrühmaga: etruskidega põhjas ja kreeklastega lõunas.

Etruskid (Etrusci või Tusci ladina keeles) on tõendatud Rooma põhja pool Etrurias (tänapäevane Lazio põhjaosa, Toscana ja osa Umbriast). Nad asutasid selliseid linnu nagu Tarquinia, Veii ja Volterra ning mõjutasid sügavalt Rooma kultuuri, mida näitab selgelt mõne müütilise Rooma kuninga etruski päritolu. Ajaloolastel pole kirjandust ega religiooni- ega filosoofiatekste, seetõttu on suur osa selle tsivilisatsiooni kohta teadaolevast pärit hauaplaatidest ja hauaplaatidest. [16] Etruskide käitumine on tekitanud mõningast segadust. Nagu ladina keel, on ka etruskikeelne käändeline ja helleniseeritud. Nagu indoeurooplased, olid ka etruskid patrilineaalsed ja patriarhaalsed. Nagu itaallasedki, olid nad sõjalaadsed. Gladiaatorinäitused kujunesid tegelikult välja etruskide matusekommetest. [17] [18]

Kreeklased olid ajavahemikul 750–550 eKr rajanud Lõuna-Itaaliasse palju kolooniaid (mida roomlased nimetasid hiljem Magna Graeciaks), näiteks Cumae, Napoli, Reggio Calabria, Crotone, Sybaris ja Taranto. Sitsiilia. [19] [20]

Etruski domineerimine Muuda

Pärast 650 aastat eKr muutusid etruskid Itaalias domineerivaks ja laienesid Kesk-Itaaliasse. Rooma traditsioon väitis, et Rooma oli aastatel 753–509 eKr olnud seitsme kuninga kontrolli all, alustades müütilisest Romulusest, kes väidetavalt rajas Rooma linna koos oma venna Remusega. Viimased kolm kuningat olid etruskid (vähemalt osaliselt) - nimelt Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius ja Tarquinius Superbus. (Muistsete kirjandusallikate sõnul on Priscus kreeka põgeniku ja etruski ema poeg.) Nende nimed viitavad etruskide linnale Tarquiniale.

Liivi, Plutarchos, Dionysius Halikarnassosest jt. Ta väidab, et Rooma valitses esimestel sajanditel seitsme kuninga järjest. Traditsiooniline kronoloogia, nagu Varro on kodifitseerinud, määrab nende valitsemisajale 243 aastat, keskmiselt peaaegu 35 aastat, mis on tänapäevase stipendiumi tõttu Barthold Georg Niebuhri loomingust alates üldiselt alla hinnatud. Gallid hävitasid suure osa Rooma ajaloolistest dokumentidest, kui nad pärast Allia lahingut 390 eKr linna vallutasid (Polübiose andmetel toimus lahing 387/6) ja see, mis alles jäi, kaotas lõpuks aja või varguse. Kuna kuningriigi kohta pole tänapäevaseid andmeid, tuleb kuningate kõik kontod hoolikalt kahtluse alla seada. [22] Ka kuningate nimekiri on kahtlase ajaloolise väärtusega, kuigi viimati nimetatud kuningad võivad olla ajaloolised isikud. Mõned ajaloolased usuvad (jällegi on see vaidlustatud), et Rooma oli umbes sajandi jooksul etruskide mõju all. Sel perioodil ehitati Tiberi fordi asemele sild Pons Sublicius ja ehitati ka Cloaca Maxima, väidetavalt olid etruskid seda tüüpi konstruktsioonide suurepärased insenerid. Kultuurilisest ja tehnilisest seisukohast oli etruskidel vaieldamatult suuruselt teine ​​mõju Rooma arengule, mida edestasid vaid kreeklased.

Laienedes veelgi lõunasse, puutusid etruskid kreeklastega otsesesse kontakti ja neil oli esialgu edu konfliktides Kreeka kolonistidega, pärast mida läks Etruria allakäigule. Seda ära kasutades mässas Rooma umbes 500 eKr ja sai iseseisvuse etruskidest. Samuti loobus ta monarhiast, toetades senatil põhinevat vabariiklikku süsteemi, mis koosnes linna aadlikest koos populaarsete koosolekutega, mis tagasid enamiku vabasündinud meeste ja valitud magistraatide poliitilise osaluse igal aastal.

Etruskid jätsid Roomale püsiva mõju. Roomlased õppisid neilt templeid ehitama ja etruskid võisid kasutusele võtta jumalate kolmiku - Juno, Minerva ja Jupiteri - kummardamise etruskide jumalatelt: Uni, Menrva ja Tinia. Siiski on etruskide mõju Rooma arengus sageli ülehinnatud. [23] Rooma oli peamiselt ladina linn. See ei muutunud kunagi täielikult etruskiks. Samuti näitavad tõendid, et roomlased olid suuresti mõjutatud Kreeka lõunapoolsetest linnadest, peamiselt kaubanduse kaudu. [24]

Rooma Vabariik Muuda

Rooma Vabariik pärineb traditsiooniliselt 509 eKr kuni 27 eKr. Pärast 500 aastat eKr ühines Rooma Ladina linnadega kaitses sabiinide sissetungide eest. Võites Regilluse järve lahingu aastal 493 eKr, kehtestas Rooma taas ülemvõimu Ladina -riikide üle, mille ta oli pärast monarhia langemist kaotanud. Pärast pikka võitluste seeriat fikseeriti see ülemvõim 393. aastal, kui roomlased alistasid lõpuks voltsid ja Aequid. Aastal 394 eKr vallutasid nad ka Veii ähvardava etruski naabri. Etruskide võim piirdus nüüd Etruria endaga ja Rooma oli Latiumi domineeriv linn.

Samuti on 6. sajandi lõpus eKr sõlmitud ametlik leping Kartaago linnaga, mis määratles iga linna mõjusfäärid ja reguleeris nendevahelist kaubandust.

Samas nendib Herakleidides, et 4. sajandi Rooma on Kreeka linn. [25]

Rooma esimesed vaenlased olid volšide naabermägede hõimud, Aequid ja muidugi etruskid. Aastate möödudes ja sõjalise eduga Rooma territooriumi suurendades ilmusid uued vastased. Kõige ägedamad olid gallid, lahtine rahvaste kollektiiv, kes kontrollis suurt osa Põhja-Euroopast, kaasa arvatud tänapäeva Põhja- ja Kesk-Ida-Itaalia.

Aastal 387 eKr vallutasid ja põletasid Rooma Ida -Itaaliast saabunud senonid, keda juhtis Brennus, kes olid edukalt alistanud Rooma armee Allia lahingus Etrurias. Mitmed kaasaegsed andmed viitavad sellele, et senonid lootsid Rooma karistada selle diplomaatilise neutraalsuse rikkumise eest Etrurias. Senonid marssisid Rooma 130 kilomeetrit (81 miili), kahjustamata ümbritsevat maapiirkonda. [26] Diktaator Furius Camillus alistas Brennuse peagi Tusculumis. [27] [28]

Pärast seda ehitas Rooma kähku oma hooned ümber ja asus pealetungile, vallutades etruskid ja vallutades territooriumi põhjapoolsetelt gallidelt. Pärast 345. aastat eKr surus Rooma lõunasse teiste latiinide vastu. Nende peamine vaenlane selles kvadrandis olid ägedad samniidid, kes 321. aastal eKr Caudine Forksi lahingus leegioni üle kavaldasid ja lõksu lõid. Hoolimata nendest ja muudest ajutistest tagasilöökidest läksid roomlased kindlalt edasi. Aastaks 290 eKr kontrollis Rooma üle poole Itaalia poolsaarest. 3. sajandil eKr võttis Rooma oma kontrolli alla ka lõuna pool asuva kreeka poleise. [29]

Lõputute sõdade keskel (vabariigi algusest kuni printsipaadini suleti Januse templi uksed vaid kaks korda - kui need olid avatud, tähendas see, et Rooma sõjas), pidi Rooma seisma silmitsi tõsise ühiskondliku olukorraga. kriis, ordukonflikt, poliitiline võitlus Vana -Rooma vabariigi plebeide (lihtrahvas) ja patriitslaste (aristokraatide) vahel, milles plebeid taotlesid poliitilist võrdsust patriitslastega. Sellel oli suur roll Rooma Vabariigi põhiseaduse väljatöötamisel. See sai alguse aastal 494 eKr, kui Rooma sõjas kahe naaberhõimuga lahkusid plebelased linnast (esimene plebeide eraldumine). Selle esimese lahkumineku tulemuseks oli Plebeian Tribune'i büroo loomine ja koos sellega plebelaste esimene tegeliku võimu omandamine. [30]

Traditsiooni kohaselt sai Rooma vabariigiks 509. aastal eKr. Siiski kulus paar sajandit, enne kui Rooma sai populaarse kujutlusvõime suureks linnaks. 3. sajandiks eKr oli Roomast saanud Itaalia poolsaare silmapaistev linn. Rooma ja Suure Vahemere impeeriumi Kartaago vaheliste Puunia sõdade ajal (264–146 eKr) kasvas Rooma kasv veelgi, sest temast sai esmakordselt ülemere impeeriumi pealinn. Alates 2. sajandist eKr läbis Rooma elanikkonna märkimisväärse laienemise, kuna Itaalia põllumehed, kes olid oma esivanemate põllumaadelt massiivsete, orjapõhiste talude nimega latifundia tulekuga tõrjunud, tulid linna suurel hulgal. Esimese Puunia sõja võit Kartaago üle tõi kaks esimest provintsi väljaspool Itaalia poolsaart - Sitsiilia ja Sardiinia. [31] Järgnesid osad Hispaaniast (Hispania) ja 2. sajandi alguses asusid roomlased kreeka maailma asjadesse. Selleks ajaks olid kõik hellenistlikud kuningriigid ja Kreeka linnriigid languses, lõpututest kodusõdadest kurnatud ja palgasõduritele lootnud.

Roomlased vaatasid Kreeka tsivilisatsiooni suure imetlusega. Kreeklased nägid Roomas oma kodanikuvaidlustes kasulikku liitlast ja ei läinud kaua aega, kui Rooma leegionid kutsuti Kreekasse sekkuma. Vähem kui 50 aastaga oli kogu Mandri -Kreeka alistatud. Rooma leegionid purustasid Makedoonia falangi kaks korda, aastatel 197 ja 168 eKr 146 eKr, Rooma konsul Lucius Mummius laastas Korintose, tähistades vaba Kreeka lõppu. Samal aastal hävitas Scipio Africanuse poeg Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Kartaago linna, muutes selle Rooma provintsiks.

Järgnevatel aastatel jätkas Rooma vallutusi Hispaanias koos Tiberius Gracchusega ja astus sammud Aasiasse, kui viimane Pergamoni kuningas andis oma kuningriigi Rooma rahvale. II sajandi lõpp tõi kaasa uue ohu, kui suur hulk germaani rahvaid, nimelt Cimbri ja Teutones, ületas Rhone jõe ja kolis Itaaliasse. Gaius Marius oli konsul viis korda järjest (kokku seitse) ja võitis aastatel 102 ja 101 eKr kaks otsustavat lahingut. Ta reformis ka Rooma armeed, andes sellele nii hea ümberkorralduse, et see jäi sajandeid muutumatuks.

Eelmise sajandi esimest kolmkümmend aastat eKr iseloomustasid tõsised sisemised probleemid, mis ähvardasid vabariigi olemasolu. Sotsiaalsõda Rooma ja tema liitlaste vahel ning serviide sõjad (orjade ülestõusud) olid rasked konfliktid, [32] kõik Itaalias ja sundisid roomlasi oma liitlaste ja alamate suhtes oma poliitikat muutma. [33] Selleks ajaks oli Roomast saanud ulatuslik võim, millel oli suur rikkus, mis pärines vallutatud rahvastelt (austusavaldusena, toiduna või tööjõuna, st orjadena). Rooma liitlased tundsid end kibedana, sest nad olid võidelnud roomlaste kõrval, kuid ometi polnud nad kodanikud ja neil oli vähe kasu. Kuigi nad kaotasid sõja, said nad lõpuks selle, mida küsisid, ja 1. sajandi alguseks pKr olid praktiliselt kõik vabad Itaalia elanikud Rooma kodanikud.

Imperium Romanumi (Rooma võimu) kasv tekitas aga uusi probleeme ja uusi nõudmisi, mida Vabariigi vana poliitiline süsteem koos iga -aastaselt valitud kohtunike ja võimu jagamisega ei suutnud lahendada. Sulla diktatuur, Pompeius Magnuse erakordsed käsud ja esimene triumviraat tegid selle selgeks. Jaanuaris 49 eKr marssis Gallia vallutaja Julius Caesar oma leegionid Rooma vastu. Järgnevatel aastatel võitis ta oma vastased ja valitses Roomat neli aastat. Pärast tema mõrva 44. aastal eKr üritas senat vabariiki taastada, kuid selle meistrid, Marcus Junius Brutus (vabariigi rajaja järeltulija) ja Gaius Cassius Longinus said lüüa Caesari leitnandi Marcus Antoniuse ja Caesari õepoja Octavianuse poolt.

Aastad 44–31 eKr tähistavad võitlust võimu pärast Marcus Antoniuse ja Octavianuse (hiljem tuntud kui Augustus) vahel. Lõpuks, 2. septembril eKr, Kreeka Actium'i ninas, toimus viimane lahing meres. Octavianus oli võidukas ja temast sai Rooma (ja selle impeeriumi) ainuvalitseja. See kuupäev tähistab vabariigi lõppu ja printsipaadi algust. [34] [35]

Rooma impeerium Muuda

Rooma ajaskaala
Rooma impeerium
44 eKr - 14 pKr Augustus rajab impeeriumi.
64 pKr Rooma suur tulekahju Nero valitsemise ajal.
69–96 Flavilaste dünastia. Colosseumi ehitamine.
3. sajand Rooma impeeriumi kriis. Caracalla vannide ja Aureliani müüride ehitamine.
284–337 Diocletianus ja Constantinus. Esimeste kristlike basiilikute ehitamine. Milviani silla lahing. Rooma asendab impeeriumi pealinnana Konstantinoopol.
395 Lääne- ja Ida -Rooma impeeriumi lõplik eraldamine.
410 Alari gootid vallandasid Rooma.
455 Gaisericu vandaalid vallandasid Rooma.
476 Lääne impeeriumi lagunemine ja lõpliku keiser Romulus Augusti langemine.
6. sajand Gooti sõda (535–554). Gootid katkestasid 537 aasta piiramisel akveduktid, mida ajaloolased peavad traditsiooniliselt Itaalia keskaja alguseks [36].
608 Keiser Phocas annetab Panteoni paavst Boniface IV -le, muutes selle kristlikuks kirikuks. Phocase veerg (viimane täiendus Foorum Romanum) püstitatakse.
630 Curia Julia (tühi alates Rooma senati kadumisest) muudetakse Sant'Adriano al Foro basiilikaks.
663 Constans II külastab Roomat kaheteistkümneks päevaks - ainus keiser, kes on astunud Roomas kaheks sajandiks. Ta eemaldab hoonetest nende kaunistused ja pronksi, et viia need tagasi Konstantinoopolisse.
751 Ravenna eksarhaadi lombardide vallutamine, Rooma hertsogkond on nüüd impeeriumist täielikult ära lõigatud.
754 Teatas liit frankidega, Pepin noorem Roomlaste patrician, tungib Itaaliasse. Paavstiriikide loomine.

Varase impeeriumi redigeerimine

Vabariigi lõpuks oli Rooma linn saavutanud suursugususe, mis sobib kogu Vahemerel valitseva impeeriumi pealinnale. See oli tol ajal maailma suurim linn. Hinnanguliselt on selle tipptasemel elanikkond vahemikus 450 000 kuni üle 3,5 miljoni inimese, hinnanguliselt 1–2 miljonit on ajaloolaste seas kõige populaarsemad. [37] See suursugusus suurenes Augusti ajal, kes viis Caesari projektid lõpule ja lisas palju oma projekte, näiteks Augusti foorum ja Ara Pacise. Väidetavalt on ta märkinud, et leidis Rooma tellistest linna ja jättis selle marmorist linnaks (Urbem latericium invenit, marmoream reliquit). Augusti järeltulijad püüdsid tema edu osaliselt jäljendada, lisades linnale oma panuse. 64. aastal pKr, Nero valitsemisajal, jättis Rooma suur tulekahju suure osa linnast hävinud, kuid paljuski kasutati seda uue arengu ettekäändena. [38] [39]

Rooma oli sel ajal subsideeritud linn, kusjuures umbes 15–25 protsenti oma teraviljavarudest maksis keskvalitsus. Kaubandus ja tööstus mängisid väiksemat rolli võrreldes teiste linnadega nagu Aleksandria. See tähendas, et nii suure elanikkonna ülalpidamiseks pidi Rooma sõltuma impeeriumi teistest osadest pärit toodetest ja toodangust. Seda maksti enamasti Rooma valitsuse kehtestatud maksudega. Kui seda poleks subsideeritud, oleks Rooma olnud oluliselt väiksem. [40]

Rooma rahvaarv vähenes pärast selle tippu II sajandil. Selle sajandi lõpus, Marcus Aureliuse valitsemisajal, tappis Antoniini katk päevas 2000 inimest. [41] Marcus Aurelius suri 180. aastal, tema valitsemisaeg oli viimane viiest heast keisrist ja Pax Romana. Tema poeg Commodus, kes oli kaaskeiser alates 177 pKr, võttis endale täieliku keiserliku võimu, mis on kõige sagedamini seotud Lääne-Rooma impeeriumi järkjärgulise allakäiguga. Rooma elanikkond oli vaid murdosa oma tipust, kui aastal 273 Aurelia müür valmis sai (tol aastal oli selle rahvaarv vaid umbes 500 000). Sel ajal ringles osa Rooma aristokraatlikust klassist Roomas pärast Vesuuvi vulkaanipurset aastal 79 pKr, mis hävitas Pompei linna.

Kolmanda sajandi kriis Edit

Alates 3. sajandi algusest muutusid asjad. "Kolmanda sajandi kriis" määratleb peaaegu kokku varisenud impeeriumi katastroofid ja poliitilised mured. Uut ohutunnet ja barbarite sissetungide ohtu näitas selgelt keiser Aurelianuse otsus, kes 273. aastal lõpetas pealinna ümbritsemise massiivse seinaga, mille ümbermõõt oli umbes 20 km (12 miili). Rooma jäi ametlikult impeeriumi pealinnaks, kuid keisrid veetsid seal üha vähem aega. Diocletianuse poliitiliste reformide lõpus jäi Rooma ilma traditsioonilisest impeeriumi halduskapitali rollist. Hiljem valitsesid lääne keisrid Milanost või Ravennast ehk Gallia linnadest. Aastal 330 rajas Konstantinus I teise pealinna Konstantinoopolisse.

Kristianiseerimine Muuda

Kristlus jõudis Rooma 1. sajandil pKr. Kristliku ajastu kaks esimest sajandit käsitlesid keiserlikud võimud kristlust suuresti lihtsalt juudi sekti, mitte eraldiseisva religioonina. Ükski keiser ei andnud üldisi seadusi usu ega selle kiriku vastu ning tagakiusamised, nagu need olid, viidi läbi kohalike omavalitsuste ametnike alluvuses. [42] Bythinia kuberneri Plinius noorema säilinud kiri keiser Traianusele kirjeldab oma tagakiusamist ja hukkamisi kristlaste ees. Trajanus vastas eriti sellele, et Plinius ei peaks otsima kristlasi ega võtma arvesse anonüümseid hukkamõistu, vaid karistama ainult avatud kristlasi, kes keeldusid taganemast. . [43]

Suetonius mainib möödaminnes, et Nero valitsemisajal "määrati kristlastele karistus, see oli meeste klass, kellele anti uus ja kelmikas ebausk" (ebausk novae ac maleficae). [44] Ta ei anna karistusele mingit põhjust. Tacitus teatab, et pärast Rooma suurt tulekahju aastal 64 pKr pidasid mõned elanikkonnast Nerot vastutavaks ja keiser üritas kristlasi süüdistada. [45] Sõda juutide vastu Nero valitsemisajal, mis destabiliseeris impeeriumi sedavõrd, et viis kodusõja ja Nero enesetapuni, andis täiendava põhjenduse selle „juudi” sekti mahasurumiseks.

Diocletianus võttis ette kristlaste kõige rängema ja viimase suure tagakiusamise, mis kestis 303–311. Kristlus oli liiga laialt levinud, et seda maha suruda, ja 313. aastal muutis Milano edikt sallivuse ametlikuks poliitikaks. Konstantinus I (ainuvalitseja 324–337) sai esimeseks kristlikuks keisriks ja aastal 380 kehtestas Theodosius I ametliku religioonina kristluse.

Theodosiuse ajal oli paganlike templite külastamine keelatud, [46] Rooma foorumi Vesta templis igavene tuli kustus, Vestal Neitsid laiali saadeti, eestkoste ja nõidumine karistati. Theodosius keeldus senati majas võiduala alt taastamast, nagu järelejäänud paganlikud senaatorid palusid.

Impeeriumi pöördumine ristiusku muutis Rooma piiskopi (hiljem nimetatud paavstiks) Lääne -impeeriumi kõrgeimaks usutegelaseks, nagu 380. aastal Tessaloonika ediktiga ametlikult öeldi. Vaatamata üha marginaalsemale rollile impeeriumis säilitas Rooma oma ajaloolise prestiiži ja sel perioodil toimus viimane ehitustegevuse laine: Constantine'i eelkäija Maxentius ehitas foorumisse selliseid hooneid nagu selle basiilika, püstitas Constantinus ise tähistamiseks Constantinus'i kaare oma võidu endise üle ja Diocletianus ehitas kõikidest suurimad vannid. Konstantinus oli ka linna ametlike kristlike hoonete esimene patroon. Ta kinkis paavstile Lateraani palee ja ehitas esimese suure basiilika, vana Peetruse basiilika.

Germaani sissetungid ja Lääne impeeriumi kokkuvarisemine Muuda

Rooma jäi siiski üheks paganluse tugipunktiks eesotsas aristokraatide ja senaatoritega. Uued müürid ei takistanud aga linna vallutamist 24. augustil 410 esmalt Alarici, 2. juunil 455 Geisericu ja isegi kindral Ricimeri palgata Rooma vägede poolt (mis koosnesid suures osas barbaritest) 11. juulil 472. [47] [ 48] See oli peaaegu 800 aasta jooksul esimene kord, kui Rooma langes vaenlase kätte. Eelmine Rooma rüüstamine oli gallide käes oma juhi Brennuse juhtimisel 387. aastal eKr. 410 vallandamist peetakse Lääne -Rooma impeeriumi allakäigu ja languse oluliseks maamärgiks. Püha Jeruusalemm, kes elas toona Petlemmas, kirjutas, et "Linn, mis oli vallutanud kogu maailma, võeti ise." [49] Need linna rüüstamised hämmastasid kogu Rooma maailma. Igatahes võis kottide tekitatud kahju üle hinnata. Rahvaarv hakkas juba alates 4. sajandi lõpust vähenema, kuigi umbes viienda sajandi keskpaiku paistab, et Rooma oli jätkuvalt impeeriumi kahe osa kõige rahvarikkam linn, kus elanikke oli vähemalt 650 000. [50] Langus kiirenes oluliselt pärast seda, kui vandaalid vallutasid Aafrika Proconsularise. Paljud elanikud põgenesid, kuna alates 5. sajandi keskpaigast ei saanud linna enam Aafrikast pärit teraviljaga varustada.

6. sajandi alguses võis Rooma elanike arv olla alla 100 000. Paljusid mälestusmärke hävitasid kodanikud ise, koorides suletud templitelt ja muudelt väärishoonetelt kive ning põletades isegi kujusid, et teha isiklikuks tarbeks lubi. Lisaks ehitati sel viisil enamik suurenevast kogudusest. Näiteks esimene Püha Peetruse basiilika püstitati mahajäetud Nero tsirkuse saagikuse abil. [51] See arhitektuurne kannibalism oli Rooma elu pidev tunnusjoon kuni renessansini. Alates 4. sajandist olid keiserlikud käsklused kivide ja eriti marmori eemaldamise vastu levinud, kuid nende kordamise vajadus näitab, et need olid ebaefektiivsed. Mõnikord loodi uusi kirikuid, kasutades lihtsalt ära varaseid paganlikke templeid, mõnikord aga muutes paganliku jumala või kangelase vastavaks kristlikuks pühakuks või märtriks. Nii sai Romuluse ja Remuse templist kaksikute pühakute Cosmase ja Damiani basiilika. Hiljem sai Pantheonist, kõigi jumalate templist, kõigi märtrite kirik.

Ida -Rooma (Bütsantsi) restaureerimine Redigeeri

Aastal 480 mõrvati viimane Lääne -Rooma keiser Julius Nepos ja barbaarse päritoluga Rooma kindral Odoacer kuulutas ida -Rooma keisrile Zenole truudust. [52] Despite owing nominal allegiance to Constantinople, Odoacer and later the Ostrogoths continued, like the last emperors, to rule Italy as a virtually independent realm from Ravenna. Meanwhile, the Senate, even though long since stripped of wider powers, continued to administer Rome itself, with the Pope usually coming from a senatorial family. This situation continued until Theodahad murdered Amalasuntha, a pro-imperial Gothic queen, and usurped the power in 535. The Eastern Roman emperor, Justinian I (reigned 527–565), used this as a pretext to send forces to Italy under his famed general Belisarius, recapturing the city next year, on December 9, 536 AD. In 537–538, the Eastern Romans successfully defended the city in a year-long siege against the Ostrogoth army, and eventually took Ravenna, too. [52]

Gothic resistance revived however, and on 17 December 546, the Ostrogoths under Totila recaptured and sacked Rome. [53] Belisarius soon recovered the city, but the Ostrogoths retook it in 549. Belisarius was replaced by Narses, who captured Rome from the Ostrogoths for good in 552, ending the so-called Gothic Wars which had devastated much of Italy. The continual war around Rome in the 530s and 540s left it in a state of total disrepair – near-abandoned and desolate with much of its lower-lying parts turned into unhealthy marshes as the drainage systems were neglected and the Tiber's embankments fell into disrepair in the course of the latter half of the 6th century. [54] Here, malaria developed. The aqueducts except for one were not repaired. The population, without imports of grain and oil from Sicily, shrank to less than 50,000 concentrated near the Tiber and around the Campus Martius, abandoning those districts without water supply. There is a legend, significant though untrue, that there was a moment where no one remained living in Rome. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

Justinian I provided grants for the maintenance of public buildings, aqueducts and bridges – though, being mostly drawn from an Italy dramatically impoverished by the recent wars, these were not always sufficient. He also styled himself the patron of its remaining scholars, orators, physicians and lawyers in the stated hope that eventually more youths would seek a better education. After the wars, the Senate was theoretically restored, but under the supervision of the urban prefect and other officials appointed by, and responsible to, the Eastern Roman authorities in Ravenna.

However, the Pope was now one of the leading religious figures in the entire Byzantine Roman Empire and effectively more powerful locally than either the remaining senators or local Eastern Roman (Byzantine) officials. In practice, local power in Rome devolved to the Pope and, over the next few decades, both much of the remaining possessions of the senatorial aristocracy and the local Byzantine Roman administration in Rome were absorbed by the Church.

The reign of Justinian's nephew and successor Justin II (reigned 565–578) was marked from the Italian point of view by the invasion of the Lombards under Alboin (568). In capturing the regions of Benevento, Lombardy, Piedmont, Spoleto and Tuscany, the invaders effectively restricted Imperial authority to small islands of land surrounding a number of coastal cities, including Ravenna, Naples, Rome and the area of the future Venice. The one inland city continuing under Eastern Roman control was Perugia, which provided a repeatedly threatened overland link between Rome and Ravenna. In 578 and again in 580, the Senate, in some of its last recorded acts, had to ask for the support of Tiberius II Constantine (reigned 578–582) against the approaching Dukes, Faroald I of Spoleto and Zotto of Benevento.

Maurice (reigned 582–602) added a new factor in the continuing conflict by creating an alliance with Childebert II of Austrasia (reigned 575–595). The armies of the Frankish King invaded the Lombard territories in 584, 585, 588 and 590. Rome had suffered badly from a disastrous flood of the Tiber in 589, followed by a plague in 590. The latter is notable for the legend of the angel seen, while the newly elected Pope Gregory I (term 590–604) was passing in procession by Hadrian's Tomb, to hover over the building and to sheathe his flaming sword as a sign that the pestilence was about to cease. The city was safe from capture at least.

Agilulf, however, the new Lombard King (reigned 591 to c. 616), managed to secure peace with Childebert, reorganised his territories and resumed activities against both Naples and Rome by 592. With the Emperor preoccupied with wars in the eastern borders and the various succeeding Exarchs unable to secure Rome from invasion, Gregory took personal initiative in starting negotiations for a peace treaty. This was completed in the autumn of 598—later recognised by Maurice—lasting until the end of his reign.

The position of the Bishop of Rome was further strengthened under the usurper Phocas (reigned 602–610). Phocas recognised his primacy over that of the Patriarch of Constantinople and even decreed Pope Boniface III (607) to be "the head of all the Churches". Phocas's reign saw the erection of the last imperial monument in the Roman Forum, the column bearing his name. He also gave the Pope the Pantheon, at the time closed for centuries, and thus probably saved it from destruction.

During the 7th century, an influx of both Byzantine Roman officials and churchmen from elsewhere in the empire made both the local lay aristocracy and Church leadership largely Greek speaking. The population of Rome, a magnet for pilgrims, may have increased to 90,000. [55] Eleven of thirteen Popes between 678 and 752 were of Greek or Syrian descent. [56] However, the strong Byzantine Roman cultural influence did not always lead to political harmony between Rome and Constantinople. In the controversy over Monothelitism, popes found themselves under severe pressure (sometimes amounting to physical force) when they failed to keep in step with Constantinople's shifting theological positions. In 653, Pope Martin I was deported to Constantinople and, after a show trial, exiled to the Crimea, where he died. [57] [58]

Then, in 663, Rome had its first imperial visit for two centuries, by Constans II—its worst disaster since the Gothic Wars when the Emperor proceeded to strip Rome of metal, including that from buildings and statues, to provide armament materials for use against the Saracens. However, for the next half century, despite further tensions, Rome and the Papacy continued to prefer continued Byzantine Roman rule: in part because the alternative was Lombard rule, and in part because Rome's food was largely coming from Papal estates elsewhere in the Empire, particularly Sicily.

Rome Timeline
Medieval Rome
772 The Lombards briefly conquer Rome but Charlemagne liberates the city a year later.
800 Charlemagne is crowned Holy Roman Emperor in St. Peter's Basilica.
846 The Saracens sack St. Peter.
852 Building of the Leonine Walls.
962 Otto I crowned Emperor by Pope John XII
1000 Emperor Otto III and Pope Sylvester II.
1084 The Normans sack Rome.
1144 Creation of the commune of Rome.
1300 First Jubilee proclaimed by Pope Boniface VIII.
1303 Foundation of the Roman University.
1309 Pope Clement V moves the Holy Seat to Avignon.
1347 Cola di Rienzo proclaims himself tribune.
1377 Pope Gregory XI moves the Holy Seat back to Rome.

Break with Constantinople and formation of the Papal States Edit

In 727, Pope Gregory II refused to accept the decrees of Emperor Leo III, which promoted the Emperor's iconoclasm. [59] Leo reacted first by trying in vain to abduct the Pontiff, and then by sending a force of Ravennate troops under the command of the Exarch Paulus, but they were pushed back by the Lombards of Tuscia and Benevento. Byzantine general Eutychius sent west by the Emperor successfully captured Rome and restored it as a part of the empire in 728.

On 1 November 731, a council was called in St. Peter's by Gregory III to excommunicate the iconoclasts. The Emperor responded by confiscating large Papal estates in Sicily and Calabria and transferring areas previously ecclesiastically under the Pope to the Patriarch of Constantinople. Despite the tensions Gregory III never discontinued his support to the imperial efforts against external threats.

In this period the Lombard kingdom revived under the leadership of King Liutprand. In 730 he razed the countryside of Rome to punish the Pope who had supported the duke of Spoleto. [60] Though still protected by his massive walls, the pope could do little against the Lombard king, who managed to ally himself with the Byzantines. [61] Other protectors were now needed. Gregory III was the first Pope to ask for concrete help from the Frankish Kingdom, then under the command of Charles Martel (739). [62]

Liutprand's successor Aistulf was even more aggressive. He conquered Ferrara and Ravenna, ending the Exarchate of Ravenna. Rome seemed his next victim. In 754, Pope Stephen II went to France to name Pippin the Younger, king of the Franks, as patricius romanorum, i.e. protector of Rome. In the August of that year the King and Pope together crossed back the Alps and defeated Aistulf at Pavia. When Pippin went back to St. Denis however, Aistulf did not keep his promises, and in 756 besieged Rome for 56 days. The Lombards returned north when they heard news of Pippin again moving to Italy. This time he agreed to give the Pope the promised territories, and the Papal States were born.

In 771 the new King of the Lombards, Desiderius, devised a plot to conquer Rome and seize Pope Stephen III during a feigned pilgrimage within its walls. His main ally was one Paulus Afiarta, chief of the Lombard party within the city. He conquered Rome in 772 but angered Charlemagne. However the plan failed, and Stephens' successor, Pope Hadrian I called Charlemagne against Desiderius, who was finally defeated in 773. [63] The Lombard Kingdom was no more, and now Rome entered into the orbit of a new, greater political institution.

Numerous remains from this period, along with a museum devoted to Medieval Rome, can be seen at Crypta Balbi in Rome.


Introduction to ancient Rome

Legend has it that Rome was founded in 753 B.C.E. by Romulus, its first king. In 509 B.C.E. Rome became a republic ruled by the Senate (wealthy landowners and elders) and the Roman people. During the 450 years of the republic Rome conquered the rest of Italy and then expanded into France, Spain, Turkey, North Africa and Greece.

Rome became very Greek influenced or “Hellenized,” and the city was filled with Greek architecture, literature, statues, wall-paintings, mosaics, pottery and glass. But with Greek culture came Greek gold, and generals and senators fought over this new wealth. The Republic collapsed in civil war and the Roman empire began.

In 31 B.C.E. Octavian, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, defeated Cleopatra and Mark Antony at Actium. This brought the last civil war of the republic to an end. Although it was hoped by many that the republic could be restored, it soon became clear that a new political system was forming: the emperor became the focus of the empire and its people. Although, in theory, Augustus (as Octavian became known) was only the first citizen and ruled by consent of the Senate, he was in fact the empire’s supreme authority. As emperor he could pass his powers to the heir he decreed and was a king in all but name.

The empire, as it could now be called, enjoyed unparalleled prosperity as the network of cities boomed, and goods, people and ideas moved freely by land and sea. Many of the masterpieces associated with Roman art, such as the mosaics and wall paintings of Pompeii, gold and silver tableware, and glass, including the Portland Vase, were created in this period. The empire ushered in an economic and social revolution that changed the face of the Roman world: service to the empire and the emperor, not just birth and social status, became the key to advancement.


Ajalugu [redigeeri | allika muutmine]

The Roman Kingdom [ edit | allika muutmine]

Rome grew from settlements around the River Tiber and was probably founded around 900 BC by members of the Latins and the Sabines. The Etruscans were later integrated into the city and set up a monarchy, which was later overthrown and the Roman Republic was created.

According to Roman Legend, Rome was founded in 753 BCE on the 21st April by two twins descended from the Trojan hero Aeneas, Romulus and Remus (Romulus's name supposedly inspiring the name Rooma). When arguing over who would rule, Romulus killed his brother and became the first of seven kings of Rome over the Latins. Legend also says the Latins invited the Sabines to a feast and stole their women, which eventually led to the Sabines living in Rome as well. The last king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was overthrown in 510 BCE, leading to the Roman Republic.

The Roman Republic [ edit | allika muutmine]

 Roman Republic was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world.

Roman society under the Republic was a cultural mix of Latin, Etruscan, and Greek elements, which is especially visible in the Roman Pantheon. Its political organisation was strongly influenced by the Greek city-states of Magna Graecia, with collective and annual magistracies, overseen by a Senate. The top magistrates were the two consuls, who had an extensive range of executive, legislative, judicial, military, and religious powers. Whilst there were elections each year, the Republic was not a democracy, but an oligarchy, as a small number of large families (called gentes) monopolized the main magistracies. Roman institutions underwent considerable changes throughout the Republic to adapt to the difficulties it faced, such as the creation of promagistracies to rule its conquered provinces or the composition of the Senate.

Unlike the Pax Romana of the Roman Empire, the Republic was in a state of quasi-perpetual war throughout its existence. Its first enemies were its Latin and Etruscan neighbours as well as the Gauls, who even sacked the city in 387 BC. The Republic nonetheless demonstrated extreme resilience and always managed to overcome its losses, however catastrophic. After the Gallic Sack, Rome indeed conquered the whole Italian peninsula in a century, which turned the Republic into a major power in the Mediterranean. The Republic's greatest enemy was doubtless Carthage, against which it waged three wars. The Punic general Hannibal famously invaded Italy by crossing the Alps and inflicted on Rome two devastating defeats at the Lake Trasimene and Cannae, but the Republic once again recovered and won the war thanks to Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. With Carthage defeated, Rome became the dominant power of the ancient Mediterranean world. It then embarked in a long series of difficult conquests, after having notably defeated Philip V and Perseus of Macedon, Antiochus III of the Seleucid Empire, the Lusitanian Viriathis, the Numidian Jugurtha, the great Pontic king Mithridates VI, the Gaul Vercingetorix, and the Egyptian queen Cleopatra.

At home, the Republic similarly experienced a long streak of social and political crises, which ended in several violent civil wars. At first, the Conflict of the Orders opposed the patricians, the closed oligarchic elite, to the far more numerous plebs, who finally achieved political equality in several steps during the 4th century BC. Later, the vast conquests of the Republic disrupted its society, as the immense influx of slaves, they brought enriched the aristocracy but ruined the peasantry and urban workers. In order to solve this issue, several social reformers, known as the Populares, tried to pass agrarian laws, but the Gracchi brothers, Saturninus, or Clodius Pulcher were all murdered by their opponents, the Optimates, keepers of the traditional aristocratic order. Mass slavery also caused three Servile Wars the last of them was led by Spartacus, a skillful gladiator who ravaged Italy and left Rome powerless until his defeat in 71 BC. In this context, the last decades of the Republic were marked by the rise of great generals, who exploited their military conquests and the factional situation in Rome to gain control of the political system. Marius (between 105–86 BC), then Sulla (between 82–78 BC) dominated in turn the Republic both used extraordinary powers to purge their opponents. These multiple tensions lead to a series of civil wars the first between the two generals Julius Caesar and Pompey. Despite his victory and appointment as dictator for life, Caesar was murdered in 44 BC. Caesar's heir Octavian and lieutenant Mark Antony defeated Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC,but then turned against each other. The final defeat of Mark Antony and his ally Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, and the Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian as Augustus in 27 BC – which effectively made him the first Roman emperor – thus ended the Republic.

The Roman Empire [ edit | allika muutmine]

 Rooma impeerium was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from Italy, the homeland of the Romans and metropole of the empire, [8][9]  with the city of Rome as capital (27 BC – 286 AD). The Roman Empire was then ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Senate of Rome sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople (Byzantium in Ancient Greek). The fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with with the Hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages.

The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became severely destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict. In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and then assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. The following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was then unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus, effectively making him the first emperor.

The first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana ("Roman Peace"). It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan (98–117 AD). A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West. Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire finally collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD. The Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453.

Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influenceon the development of language, religion, architecture, philosophy, law, and forms of government in the territory it governed, particularly Europe. The Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire. Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendomdudring the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of later republics such as the United States and France. The corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture.


Period of Kings (625-510 BC)

The first period in Roman history is known as the Period of Kings, and it lasted from Rome’s founding until 510 BC. During this brief time Rome, led by no fewer than six kings, advanced both militaristically and economically with increases in physical boundaries, military might, and production and trade of goods including oil lamps. Politically, this period saw the early formation of the Roman constitution. The end of the Period of Kings came with the decline of Etruscan power, thus ushering in Rome’s Republican Period.


Ancient Rome 101

Spanning over a thousand years, ancient Rome was a civilization of constant evolution. This great empire flourished through innovation and incorporation of the diverse cultures they conquered, such as the adoption of Latin and gladiatorial combat. Learn about the rise and fall of this ancient civilization and how its influence still endures today.

Geography, Human Geography, Social Studies, Ancient Civilizations, World History

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Seotud ressursid

Ancient Civilizations: Rome

Test your knowledge of ancient Rome with this fun Kahoot!

The Power of Latin in Ancient Rome

Students investigate how the geographic spread of an impactful human system&mdashlanguage&mdashinfluenced power in ancient Rome.

Teaching Idea: Ancient Rome

Use this idea and suggested resources to help you build a lesson or activity on ancient Rome.

Seotud ressursid

Ancient Civilizations: Rome

Test your knowledge of ancient Rome with this fun Kahoot!

The Power of Latin in Ancient Rome

Students investigate how the geographic spread of an impactful human system&mdashlanguage&mdashinfluenced power in ancient Rome.

Teaching Idea: Ancient Rome

Use this idea and suggested resources to help you build a lesson or activity on ancient Rome.


Ancient Rome: Health and Medicine

Ancient Rome, just like Greece and Egypt before it, dedicated a huge amount of time to the study of medicine and health. Rather than focusing on cures, the Romans preferred to seek out new methods of disease prevention. However, this manifested itself as an emphasis on public health facilities as opposed to the development of medical theories, as was the case in Ancient Greece.

Although many of the discoveries made by the Romans were not necessarily considered pure medicine, the lack of hygiene that plagued Roman citizens meant any attempt at improving public health had a significant impact on society.

Despite the differences between the way the two civilisations approach medicine and health, the Romans sourced a lot of their information from the Ancient Greeks. This was aided by the relationship between the two having first come into contact around 500 BC, part of Greece had actually become a division of the roman Empire by 146 BC.

In fact, by 27 BC, the control of Greece and other lands around the Mediterranean was seized by the Romans. As such, many of their medical theories reflected the ideas of the Greeks, but reflected Rome’s more practical approach to research and development.

Instead, the Romans were concerned with directly improving quality of life of their empire, and this applied to all aspects of life. This was effectively summed up by Greek geographer Strabo, who claimed:

“The Greeks are famous for their cities and in this they aimed at beauty. The Romans excelled in those things which the Greeks took little interest in such as the building of roads, aqueducts and sewers.”

Cicero, the famous writer, mirrored this opinion:

“The Greeks held the geometer in the highest honour, and, to them, no-one came before mathematicians. But we Romans have established as the limit of this art, its usefulness in measuring and reckoning.”

During the early years of the Roman Empire there were no practicing medical professionals. Instead, the head of each household was given the responsibility of gaining enough knowledge of herbal cures to make it possible for them to treat illnesses and injuries at home.

Pliny, another Roman writer, reflected this in his description of Roman medicine:

“Unwashed wool supplies very many remedies… it is applied… with honey to old sores. Wounds it heals if dipped in wine or vinegar… yolks of eggs… are taken for dysentery with the ash of their shells, poppy juice and wine.”

Once the Roman Empire had expanded into Greek territory their attitude to medicine began to slowly change. Initially, many of its doctors were relocated to Italy, with some (as prisoners of war) purchased by wealthy Romans to work in their household. Eventually, some of these physicians were able to buy their own freedom and set up practices in Rome. However, many Romans were uncertain of their trustworthiness.

“There is no doubt that all these physicians in their hunt of popularity by means of some new idea, did not hesitate to buy it with our lives. Medicine changes everyday, and we are swept along on the puffs of the clever brains of the Greeks… as if thousands of people do not live without physicians - though not, of course, without medicine.”

Despite these concerns, many Greek physicians were actually supported by the Emperor, making them incredibly popular among the Roman public. In fact, Pliny wrote about how Thessalus, a popular physician, was more popular at the time than any of the famous actors or chariot riders.

On the other hand, there were still many Romans who invested more in ensuring their own fitness rather than on physicians and their cures, believing that those who were physically fit were more likely to be able to fight an illness.

The Romans as a civilisation also believed that improved public health systems would ensure their success Romans believed that illnesses were caused naturally and that unclean water and sewage could cause bad health. Public health services were developed to ensure the health of the wealthy and to secure the continued labour of the poorer classes. In fact, the Romans are considered by many to have been the first civilisation to introduced public health services that spanned the classes.

The belief of the Romans in the importance of hygiene resulted in many cities, forts and villas in Rome being built in what were considered the healthiest areas.

Scholar and writer Marcus Varro wrote:

“When building a house or farm… care should be taken where there are swaps in the neighbourhood, because certain tiny creatures which cannot be seen by the eyes breed there. These float through the air and enter the body by the mouth and nose and cause serious disease.”

Of course, the health of Rome’s legions was also considered a top priority as the empire’s reign was linked to their success. In fact, a huge amount of emphasis was placed on legionnaires having access to clean water and they were encouraged to keep fit, while officers were told to camp away from swamps so they would only drink clean water. Additionally, it was believed that they could pick up diseases if they stayed in the same place for too long, so legions were regularly moved.

Cities, forts and towns were built as close to fresh springs as possible, though water was transported in when these places began to grow. The water supply in Rome was particularly important as it was the capital city, and it had its own Water Commissioner - Julius Frontinus - appointed in 97 AD. The city grew so large the an estimated 1,000 million litres of water were transported to Rome each day.

Public baths were another important place for the Roman public, who put great emphasis on personal hygiene. Similarly, toilets were round in many Roman houses, as well as on the streets, so they were able to be used by all classes. In fact, by 315 AD it is believed that Rome had 144 public toilets that were all flushed by clean running water. Toilets were also located within forts and, thanks to the development of sewers, were served by an effective drainage system.

According to Pliny, many Romans believed sewer systems were the Romans biggest achievement. The sewers were designed so seven rivers would flow through them and flush away any sewage. This made it possible for the cities and it’s important facilities to stay hygienic.

Ostia Toilets

Cities, villas and forts in Rome were built in healthy places, as the Romans knew the difference between a good place to build and less suitable places.

Marcus Varro, a scholar and writer, describes this process:

" When building a house or farm special care should be taken to place it at the foot of a wooded hill where it is exposed to health-giving winds. Care should be taken where there are swamps in the neighbourhood, because certain tiny creatures which cannot be seen by the eyes breed there. These float through the air and enter the body by the mouth and nose and cause serious disease. & quot

Columella, another Roman, describes the agricultural perspective:

" There should be no marshes near buildings, for marshes give off poisonous vapours during the hot period of the summer. At this time, they give birth to animals with mischief-making stings which fly at us in thick swarms. & quot

The health of Rome’s legions was naturally considered very important as without them, the Roman Empire would fall. A lot of emphasis was placed on legionnaires having access to clean water and keeping fit , while officers were discouraged from camping near swamps so they would not drink the fetid water. They were also moved around regularly as it was feared they may pick up the existing diseases if they stayed in the same place for too long.

The Romans valued clean water very much, writes the architect Vitruvius:

“ We must take great care in searching for springs and, in selecting them, keeping in mind the health of the people.”

Cities, towns and forts were all built near fresh springs. Though when these grew, water needed to be brought in from further away. Naturally, as the population grew, the need for clean water did too. As the empire’s capital city, Rome had to have a water supply that would make a good impression. This was designed by Julius Frontinus who was appointed the Water Commissioner in 97 AD. An estimated 1,000 million litres of water a day was carried into Rome.

Personal hygiene was also a constant issue in the Romans lifestyle, which placed an important factor onto the public baths.

There were also toilets in Roman houses and on streets - something which was also a part of other civilisations but were designed to show wealth. By 315 AD Rome was said to have had 144 public toilets all flushed clean by running water. All forts had toilets, and to complement them an effective drainage system was needed. According to the Roman writer Pliny, many Romans believed that Rome sewers were the city’s biggest achievement.

Seven rivers were designed to flow through the city’s sewers and flush any sewage out. Military hospitals also had a focus on hygiene importance, as the Romans believed injured soldiers would recover quicker in a clean environment.


Vana -Rooma

The Romans lived in a wide variety of homes depending on whether they were wealthy or poor. The poor lived in cramped apartments in the cities or in small shacks in the country. The rich lived in private homes in the city or large villas in the country.

Most people in the cities of Ancient Rome lived in apartments called insulae. The wealthy lived in single family homes called domus of various sizes depending on how rich they were.

The vast majority of the people living in Roman cities lived in cramped apartment buildings called insulae. Insulae were generally three to five stories high and housed from 30 to 50 people. The individual apartments usually consisted of two small rooms.

The bottom floor of the insulae often housed shops and stores that opened out to the streets. The larger apartments were also near the bottom with the smallest at the top. Many insulae were not constructed very well. They could be dangerous places if they caught fire and sometimes even collapsed.

The wealthy elite lived in large single family homes called domus. These homes were much nicer than the insulae. Most Roman houses had similar features and rooms. There was an entryway that led to the main area of the house called the atrium. Other rooms such as bedrooms, dining room, and kitchen might be off to the sides of the atrium. Beyond the atrium was the office. In the back of the home was often an open garden.

  • Vestibulum - A grand entrance hall to the house. On either side of the entrance hall might be rooms that housed small shops opening out to the street.
  • Atrium - An open room where guests were greeted. The atrium typically had an open roof and a small pool that was used to collect water.
  • Tablinum - The office or living room for the man of the house.
  • Triclinium - The dining room. This was often the most impressive and decorated room of the house in order to impress guests that were dining over.
  • Cubiculum - The bedroom.
  • Culina - The kitchen.

While the poor and the slaves lived in small shacks or cottages in the countryside, the wealthy lived in large expansive homes called villas.

The Roman villa of a wealthy Roman family was often much larger and more comfortable than their city home. They had multiple rooms including servants' quarters, courtyards, baths, pools, storage rooms, exercise rooms, and gardens. They also had modern comforts such as indoor plumbing and heated floors.


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