Lixia lahing, 204 eKr

Lixia lahing, 204 eKr


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Lixia lahing, 204 eKr

Lixia lahing (oktoober 204 eKr) oli vastuoluline võit, mille Han Xini juhitud armee võitis Qi kuningriigi armee üle pärast seda, kui Qi oli otsustanud Haniga liituda.

Han Xin saadeti Qi vallutama pärast seda, kui Liu Bang oli Chenggao piiramisest põgenenud. Li Yi Ji, teine ​​Liu Bangi nõunik, soovitas ta seejärel saata Qi -sse, et veenda Qi kuningat liituma Liu Bangiga.

Li Yi Ji jõupingutused olid edukad. Ta juhtis tähelepanu, et kui Liu Bang premeeris edukaid alluvaid, siis tema vastane Xiang Yu oli umbusaldavam ja kippus karistama. Qi kuninga truudusemuudatust võis ajendada ka tema piiridele lähenenud suur hani armee.

Otsustanud Hani poolele asuda, saatis Qi kuningas Lixiasse (tänapäeva Jinan) postitatud armeeülemad Hua Wu Shang ja Tian Xie, teatades neile, et nad ei pea enam nii valvsad olema. See osutus halvaks nõuandeks. Han Xin kas ei saanud uuest allianssist õigeaegselt teada või otsustas tahtlikult seda ignoreerida ning ründas hoopis Qi armeed Lixias. Ettevalmistamata armee sai lüüa ja Han Xin liikus edasi Qi pealinna Linzi poole.

Pole üllatav, et Qi kuningas uskus, et ta on reedetud. Li Yi Ji keedeti elusalt ja Qi palus seejärel Chult abi. Xiang Yu saatis armee, kuid nende ühendatud jõud sai Han Xin lüüa Wei jõe lahingus (203 eKr).


Rooma ajajoon III sajandil pKr

Sündis keiser Philip Araablane. Kristlik kirjanik Tertullian lõpetab oma teose Kroon.

Ilmalikke mänge (Ludi saeculares) tähistati kogu impeeriumis

Rooma ajaloolase esimene konsul Dio Cassius.

Keiser Aemiliani sünd Aafrikas Jerba saarel.

Keiser Aleksander Severuse sünd Caesarea linnas.

Keiser Septimus Severus kampaaniad Suurbritannias kaledoonlaste vastu.

Septimius Severuse surm Suurbritannias. Severuse pojad Caracalla ja Geta valitsevad ühiskeisritena. 10 kuud hiljem mõrvas Geta Caracalla, tehes temast ainukeisri.

Caracalla välja antud Constitutio Antoniniana annab kodakondsuse kõigile impeeriumi vabadele meestele.

Sündis keiser Gallienus.

Keiser Aurelianuse sünd Alam -Moesia provintsis.

Keiser Caracalla annab välja uue hõbemüntide vormi - Antoninianuse.

Uued sõjad Parthia vastu. Roomas valmivad Caracalla vannid.
Caracalla teeb juutidele järeleandmisi, vabastades nad esimest korda pärast Julius Caesari maksudest.

Keiser Caracalla surm (mõrvas keiserliku ihukaitsja ohvitser Julius Martialis). Väed väitsid uueks keisriks Caracalla all asuvat pretoriaaniprefekti Macrinust. Ta on esimene keiser, kes Rooma Ordo Equestrist välja tõmmati.

Mässuliste väed võitsid Antiookia lähedal Marcrinuse ja hukati. Pärast Macrinuse lüüasaamist tervitatakse keisriks Caracalla vennapoega Elagabalust.

Keiser Elagabalus kehtestab Süüria päikesejumala El Gabali suureks Rooma jumalaks, kelle preester ta on.

Elagabalus mõrvati preetoriuse kaardiväe käimlas olles. Severus Alexanderit peetakse Rooma uueks keisriks.

Sündis keiser Carus, kes sündis Gallias Narbo linnas.

Sündis keiser Gordianus III.

Pärsia Sassaniidide dünastia alustab sõda kaotatud maade vallutamiseks Rooma idas.

Sündis keiser Probus Sirmiumi linnas.

Aleksander Severus alustab Reini jõe Alemmani vastu kampaaniat.

Pannoonia väed kuulutasid Maximinus Thraxi keisriks.

Keiser Aleksander Severuse surm, kes tapeti, kui tema väed Moguntiacumi linna lähedal mässasid. Senat tunnistab Maximinus Thraxi keisriks. Thrax jätkab kampaaniat Alemmani vastu edukalt.

Ajaloolase surm Dio Cassius.

Gordianus I ja Gordianus II omandavad Põhja -Aafrika keisririigi.

Maximinus Thrax alustab kampaaniat daakide ja sarmaatide taaselustatud hõimude vastu.

Pärslased tungivad Rooma Mesopotaamia provintsi.

Keiser Maximinus Thraxi surm, kes tapeti, kui tema sõdurid mässasid. Keiser Gordianus I, kes poos end üles. Lahingus hukkunud keiser Gordianus II surm. Keiser Pupienus Maximuse surm, kes tapeti, kui tema ihukaitsja ta lintšis. Keiser Balbinuse surm, kes peksti ja lohistati alasti Rooma tänavatel, enne kui pretoriaanlased tappis.

Gordianus III ainukeiser. Gooti sissetung Alam -Moesiasse tõrjub.

Keiser Diocletianuse sünd Dalmaatsia provintsis. Aafrika kuberneri Sabinianuse juhtimisel alistatakse mäss Kartaago lähedal.

Gordianus III marsib Pärsia sissetungi vastu idasse ja vabastab Antiookia linna piiramisest.

Pärslaste okupeerimise Süüria provintsis võidab kindral nimega Timesitheus.

Keiser Gordianus III surm, mille hukkas troonile astuv araablane Phillip. Phillip peab Pärsia sissetungijatega rahu läbirääkimisi, et tulla toime probleemidega Reini/Doonau piiril.

Phillip ründab mitmete germaani hõimude vastu ja teeb nendega rahu. Tulevane keiser G. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus on sündinud Dalmaatsias.

Filippus II kuulutatakse keisriks vägede poolt, kes olid tema isale lojaalsed.

Rooma tähistab oma aastatuhande sünnipäeva. Doonau ülem Tiberius Claudius Marinus Pacatianuse juhtimisel puhkes mäss. Gooti hõimud kasutavad ära ja tungivad põhjapoolsetesse provintsidesse. Decius võidab gootide sissetungi ning asustab Moesia ja Pannonia ümber ning tema mehed kuulutavad ta keisriks.

Keiser Phillipi araablase surm, kes hukkus lahingus Verona lähedal Decius Trajanuse vastu. Gootid uuendavad kuninga Kniva juhtimisel oma sissetunge Rooma impeeriumisse.

Decius alistab Kniva. Sündis keiser Constantius Chlorus, kes sündis Doonau piirkonnas. Keiser Carinuse ligikaudne sünd. Keiser Galeriuse ligikaudne sünd Upper Moesia linnas Florentiana linna lähedal. Keiser Liciniuse sünd Ülem -Moesia provintsis. Keiser Maximiani ligikaudne sünd Sirmiumi linnas.

Herennius väidab, et trooni toetab tema armee. Troonipretendent Julius Valens Licianus lüüakse ja hukatakse. Keiser Deciuse surm, kes tapeti lahingus Abriciumis Karpaika gootide kuninga Kniva vastu. Trebonius Gallus kuulutatakse keisriks.

Trebonius Gallus kuulutatakse keisriks.

Trebonius Galluse surm. Aemilianus kuulutatakse keisriks, kes kestab vaid umbes 4 kuud. Kindral Valerian kuulutatakse keisriks.

Pärsia sõda süttib uuesti, Antiookia kaotas Pärsiale

Marcomani ründab ja tungib Pannonia provintsi. Gootid märatsesid, rüüstasid ja rüüstasid Traakia kuninga Kniva juhtimisel.

Frangid, germaani hõim, mille põhiosa moodustasid Cherusci ja Chatti, tungivad Galliasse. Gootid alustavad rünnakut Väike -Aasia vastu.

Germaani hõim, juthungi (džuudid), ületab ülemise Doonau ja siseneb Itaaliasse.

Lääne kaaskeiser Gallienus alistas džuudid. Keiser Valerian on vangistatud Pärsia kuninga Shapur I. Gallienu ainukeisri poolt.

Gallia impeerium asutati Gallias Postumuse (261-268) ja Tetricuse (270-274) poolt

Katk kogu impeeriumis.

Nomaadide hõim, keda tuntakse herulitena, tungib Kreekasse.

Gallienus võitis Naissusel lõpuks veel ühe gooti sissetungi.

Keiser Gallienuse mõrv. Keiser Claudius II Gothicus. Benacuse järve lahing. Keiser Claudius II Gothicus alistas teeskleja M. Acilius Aureoluse

Mediolanumi lahing, milles keiser Claudius II Gothicus alistas germaani alemannide väe.

Uus Palmyra kuninganna Zenobia mässab Rooma vastu ja ründab Rooma territooriumi.

Gooti sissetungijaid peksis Claudius Gothicus uuesti Naissusel.

Sündis keiser Maximinus II Daia. Roomlased hülgavad Dacia provintsi. Zenobia armee tungib Egiptusesse ja siseneb Aleksandria linna. Katku surnud keiser Claudius II Gothicuse surm. Õnnestus Aurelian.

Keiser Aurelian alistab gooti pealiku Cannabase. Placentia lahing, milles germaanlaste sissetung alemanni, marcomannide ja juthungi poolt alistas Rooma armee keiser Aureliani juhtimisel.

Veel mässu: Septimus Dalmaatsias, Domitianus Lõuna -Gallias ja Urbanus. Immae lahingus alistab Aurelianus Palmyra Zenobia.

Aurelianuse kampaaniad mööda Reini jõge Carpi vastu.

Keiser Aurelian sõidab Galliasse ja alistab lagunenud gallide impeeriumi, annekteerides selle uuesti. Aurelian alistab frangid, džuudid ja batavlased.

Tulevase kristliku keisri Flavius ​​Valerius Aurelius Constantiuse (Konstantinus Suur) sünd Ülem -Moesias Naissuse linnas.

Keiser Aureliani surm, kelle praetorlane nimega Mucapor surnuks suri. Asendas 75 -aastane Cornelius Tacitus.

Tacituse surm, asendatud mõrvatud Florianiga. Probusi taevaminemine.

Keiser Probus alustab Gallias kampaaniat, vabastades gootid ja germaani hõimud provintsist.

Probus kampaaniad germaani pealetungi vastu Raetias ja vandaalid Illyricumis.

Keiser Maxentiuse sünd.

Surm keiser Probusile, kelle mõrvasid Sirmiumi lähedal tema enda väed. Carus kuulutati Roomas valitsejaks.

Carus alistab Quadi ja Sarmaatlased. Keiser Carus tungis Pärsiasse.

Caruse surm. Carinus saab läänes keisriks ja idas keiser Numerianile.

Praetoriuse kaardiväe juht, nimega Diocles, võtab pärast Numeriani surma endale nime Diocletianus ja keisri tiitli idas. Diocletioni taevaminemine lõpetab sõdurkeisrite perioodi ja algab lühike taastumisaeg.

Keiser Diocletianus tutvustab maksimaalsete hindade edikti, mis fikseerib inimeste palgad ja kaupade hinna.

Keiser Carinuse surm, kelle ohvitserid mõrvasid Moesias Marguse oru lahingus Diocletianuse vastu.

Maximian alistab Gallias mässuliste ja rahulolematute talupoegade rühma Bagaudae. Tehti kaaskeisriks läänes. Keiser Maximian kampaaniad mööda Reini jõge, sõdides Alemmani ja Burgundia vastu.

Keiser Diocletianus lükkab saratseenid Süüriast välja.

Diocletion lõpetas saratseenide lüüasaamise.

Diocletion loob Tetrarhia (reegel 4), kus ta on vanem August, Maximian noorem. Galerius on vanem Caesar ja Constantius Chlorus on noorem Caesar.

Alectuse ja Carausiuse mäss Suurbritannias. Võitis Constantius Chlorus.

Keiser Diocletianus jagab provintsid osadeks, et vähendada kuberneride riski. Uusi provintse nimetatakse piiskopkondadeks ja neid on kuus idas (Orient, Pontus, Aasia, Traakia, Moesia ja Pannonia) ja kuus läänes (Suurbritannia, Gallia, Viin, Itaalia, Hispaania ja Aafrika).

Diocletianus avaldab edikti, mis keelab manichaeanideks tuntud religioosse korra.

Galerius võtab Pärsia kuningliku pere pantvangi ja on seetõttu võimeline pidama läbirääkimisi väga soodsate alistumistingimuste üle.

Constantius Chlorus tõrjub Alemmani sissetungid. Diocletianus piirab Aleksandriat Domitius Domitianuse ja Achilleuse juhitud mässu vastu. Maximian vallutab Aafrika kadunud osad tagasi ja alistab maurid. Galerius vallutab Mesopotaamia provintsi tagasi.


Vaarao visiidid

Mõned naised Vana -Egiptuses võivad olla ka visiidid (kõrgeimad ametnikud vaarao teenistuses). Ainult kaks neist on nime järgi kinnitatud ja tuntud. Esimene neist on ajalootekstides tuntud kui Nebet. Ta oli visiir kuuenda dünastia vaarao Pepi I valitsemisajal, Egiptuse vana kuningriigi ajal. Tema abikaasa oli aadlik Khui, kes oli ka tähtis isik kuninga õukonnas, kuid tema naine saavutas riigi poliitilises süsteemis kõrgeima võimaliku positsiooni. Nebeti ja Khui tütred Ankhesenpepi I ja Ankhesenpepi II said Pepi I naiseks. Ankhesenpepi I oli vaarao Merenre Nemtyemsafi ema. Tema õde kandis vaaraot Pepi II. Pealegi abiellus Ankhesenpepi II pärast esimese abikaasa surma Merenre Nemtyemsafiga.

Kujund kuninganna Ankhesenpepi II ja tema poja, Pepy II, ca. 2288-2224 või 2194 e.m.a. Egiptuse alabaster, Brooklyni muuseum. ( Avalik domeen )

Nebet oli tuntud kui oma aja võimas naine, mõned usuvad, et ta oli kuningliku perega seotud printsess. Tema nimi oli seotud Geb, Toth ja Horus. Näib, et tema positsioon mõjutas dünastia kuvandit. Vesiirina kontrollis ta Pepi püramiidi ehitamist ja muid tema tellitud monumente. Ta oli oma aja üks suurimaid kuningaid ja tema parem käsi oli naine.

Ka Ptolemaiose perioodil, Ptolemaios V valitsemisajal, sai naisest visiir - kuninganna Cleopatra I Syra, Cleopatra II, Ptolemaios VI ja Ptolemaios VIII ema. Ta sündis aastal 204 eKr kuningas Antiochus III Suure ja tema naise Leodice tütrena. Ta oli esimene Egiptuse suurtest Kleopatrastest ja võib -olla ainus selle riigi kuninganna, kellest oli saanud visiir.


Tunne oma ajaloolisi sõjalaevu: 7. sajandist eKr - 17. sajandist pKr

Mis puutub ajalukku, siis meretegevus oli kahtlemata suurendanud inimkonna „haardeulatust” nii rändetegevuse (nagu Austronesia rahvas) kui ka kaubandusvõrgustike (nagu foiniiklased) vaatenurgast. Aja jooksul muutusid erinevate asulate rannikualade geograafilised asukohad pigem strateegilisteks majanduskeskusteks, mida tasus kaitsta - andes seega teed maailma esimestele merevägedele. See omakorda viis mereväe laevade, nimelt sõjalaevade projekteerimise ja arenemiseni, mis ehitati spetsiaalseteks kaitse- ja rünnakuoperatsioonideks.

Huvitav on see, et üks selliste sõjalaevade järjekindlatest mallidest puudutab kambüüsi - põhimõtteliselt laeva, mida veavad peamiselt purjede asemel ridad (aerud). Järelikult püsis sõjakamber erinevates vormides (mitmekesiste relvasüsteemidega) säilinud aastatuhandeid, võimalik, et umbes aastast 1500 eKr kuni 17. sajandini pKr, kuni arenenud mereväe käsitööni. Sisuliselt peame mõistma, et sõja kambüüs ei ole täpselt lõplik sõjalaevade tüüp, vaid pigem üldine disain, millel põhinevad eri tüüpi sõjalaevad.

Teisest küljest viitas fregatt algselt igasugusele purjedega sõjalaevale, mis oli ehitatud kiiruse ja manööverdusvõime jaoks ning mille mõõtmed olid tavaliselt väiksemad kui põhisõjalaeval. 17. sajandiks kandsid oma kiiruse poolest tuntud fregatid kergemat relvastust kui „liini laev”. Korvetid olid isegi fregatidest väiksemad, mõnikord lohistatud - ja seega olid need reserveeritud ainult rannakaitseks (ja rüüsteretkedeks) ja väiksemateks tegevusteks purjete ajastul (1571–1862).

Sel eesmärgil käsitleme käesolevas artiklis tuntud ajaloolisi sõjalaevu (mõned põhinevad kambüüsi disainil, teised purjede baasil), mis on sõitnud avamerel ja mille ajavahemik hõlmab peaaegu 2500 aastat - 7. sajandist eKr kuni 17. sajand pKr.

1) Bireme ja Trireme (pärit umbes 7. sajandist eKr) -

Allikas: Assassin’s Creed Wiki

Mainis Herodotos pentaconter, laevatüüp, mille mõlemal küljel oli üks aerukomplekt (võib -olla 25). See laev, mille ülesanne oli ületada lõhe uurimise ja rüüsteretkede vahel, oli tõenäoliselt üks esimesi tüüpe, mida Kreeka merelinnad ja kolooniad suhtlemiseks ja rannikukontrolliks kasutasid. Kuid kahtlemata on esimene teadaolev laev, mis on pühendatud meresõjale, tõenäoliselt bireme. Uskudes palju suuremat disaini kui penteconter, tüüpiline kahejalgne 80 jala pikkuneremus mis tähendab ladina keeles ‘aer’) oli mõlemal küljel kaks aerutekki, mida täiendas üks laia ristkülikukujulise purjega mast. Veelgi olulisem on see, et vastavalt sõjalaeva (või sõja kambüüsi) staatusele oli bireme varustatud ka embool, löömislamp või nokk, mis võib vaenlase laevadesse puruneda.

Nüüd, ühe hüpoteesi kohaselt, oli Kreeka bireem tõenäoliselt inspireeritud foiniiklaste kasutuses olnud kiiresti liikuvatest kambüüsidest. Kuid sajandite jooksul arenes bireme trireemiks (kolme tekiga), millel olid suuremad mõõtmed, vastupidavam disain, topeltmastid (üks suur ja üks väike) ja rohkem meeskonnaliikmeid (võib -olla 200, 170 neist on sõudjad). Lisaks oli selliste trireem -tüüpi sõjalaevade juhtimisstruktuur, eriti iidse Ateena mereväes, üsna sujuv, kasutades selleks pühendunud kaptenit, keda tuntakse kui hierarhiat (triērarchos), kes juhtis oma kogenud meremeeste ja sõudjate rühma.

Selliste sõjagaleriide täieliku domineerimisega muistses Vahemere teatris (umbes 4. sajandil eKr) ei tohiks olla üllatav, et trireem arenes edasi kvadriimiks, quinquereme'iks jne. Üks asjakohane näide oleks seotud Tessarakonteres (skeem ülal) - kuulus Ptolemaios (Ptolemaios) IV Filosoatorile, kes valitses Egiptuse Ptolemaiose kuningriiki aastatel 221–204 eKr. Athenaeuse koostatud kirjelduse kohaselt oli hiiglaslikus hellenistlikus sõjalaevas oma 40 ridade ja seitsme jääraga väidetavalt mehitatud 400 meremeest (purjede taglaseks ja reguleerimiseks) 4000 sõudjat (aerude käitlemiseks) ja 2850 relvastatud mereväelast. kokku 7250 meest, mis on rohkem kui meeskonna arv, mis on nõutud maailma suurima olemasoleva lennukikandja pardal!

Rooma Vabariik ja Kartaago impeerium olid samuti tuntud suure kvadride- ja quinquereme -laevastiku pidamise poolest ning sellisena olid paljud neist sõjalaevadest varustatud ka suurtükiväega katapultide ja ballistide kujul. Lisaks töötasid Rooma merejalaväelased välja mehhanismi, mida tuntakse kui corvus (mis tähendab ladina keeles “vares” või “ronk”) või harpago. See oli omamoodi pardasild, mida sai tõsta 12 jalga kõrgelt tugevalt puidust sambalt ja seejärel pöörata mis tahes suunas. Selle silla otsas oli raske teravik (corvus"Ise", mis klammerdus vaenlase laeva teki külge, lukustades seega kaks laeva kokku. Rooma sõdurid läksid üle selle ajutise silla ja astusid otse vaenlase laevale. See mereväe taktika andis roomlastele ülekaalu, kuna nad olid tuntud oma asjatundlikkuse poolest lähivõitluses.

2) Liburnian (pärineb umbes 2. sajandist eKr) -

Väiksemad Liburnia laevad külgedel, toetades kesklinnas quinquereme'i. Allikas: Telias

Pärast seda, kui Rooma Vabariik saavutas võidu Kartaago elanike üle, oli tema merevägi suhteliselt turvaline ja sellisena kajastas status quo tavapäraseid täielikult kaetud kambüüsid, mis olid varustatud osaliselt vee alla jäänud jääride, mehaanilise suurtükiväe ja võib-olla isegi tornidega (nt. vibulaskjad). Mõnel juhul võitis päeva ikkagi Rooma leidlikkus - üks näide puudutas Rooma meeleheitlikku laevastikku, ühe Decimus Brutuse juhtimisel, võitlust Veneti ja nende tugevate laevadega (Caesari Gallia sõdade ajal, umbes 56 eKr). Vastuseks mõtles Brutus välja uskumatu taktika haaramiskonksude kasutamiseks, mis võimaldaksid neil raskete Veneetsia laevade taglast ära lõigata.

Kuid roomlaste järkjärgulise ülemvõimu tõttu Vahemere piirkonnas ei nõudnud riik laiaulatuslike sõjaliste toimingute jaoks tegelikult suuri laevu. Lisaks tõusis 1. sajandil eKr esile uut tüüpi vaenlane - piraadid oma kergemate laevadega, kes tegid sagedasi rünnakuid Illyria rannikul ja Aadria mere erinevatel saartel. Vastuseks võtsid roomlased vastu nende kergemate, paremini manööverdatavate laevade kavandid-ja tulemuseks oli liburnian (liburnidas), ühe pangaga kambüüs, mida hiljem täiendati teise aerukalliga. Nimi tulenes tõenäoliselt Aadria mere rannikust pärit mereliste hõimust „Liburni”.

Põhimõtteliselt toimis liburnian tavaliste bireemide kiirema sõjalaevade variandina ja neid kasutati seega luure-, rüüsteretkede ja kaubalaevade üldiste saatjaülesannete täitmiseks. Aja jooksul oli Liburnia sõjalaevu erinevat tüüpi, mõned olid varustatud raskemate raamide ja jääraga, et tagada parem ründevõime (mitte kiirus). Tegelikult kasutati Rooma impeeriumi tekkimise ajaks liburniat põhimõtteliselt üldnimetusena enamiku Rooma sõjalaevade (ja isegi kaubalaevade) jaoks. Mis puudutab ajaloolist tähtsust, siis oli teada, et Agrippa kasutas 31. märtsil eKr otsustavas lahingus tõhusalt oma liburnlaste sõjalaevastikku Marc Antony ja Cleopatra vägede vastu.

3) Dromon (pärit umbes 4.-5. Sajandil pKr)-

Kõige levinum sõjalaev umbes 5. sajandil pKr (kuni 12. sajandini pKr), eriti Vahemere vetes, kuulus dromonile („jooksja” või „võidusõitja”). Nagu nimest enesestki aru võis saada, oli see kambüüsi tüüpi laev kujundatud kiirlaevana, mis hoidis ära varasematel Kreeka ja Rooma sõjalaevadel kasutatud tugijala. Mõnede ajaloolaste arvates võis dromon olla liburniku evolutsioon ja sellisena oli see Ida -Rooma (Bütsantsi) mereväe alustala, mis säilitas oma keskse keskaja ajal oma ülemvõimu. Dromoni tüüpi kambüüsid (või vähemalt sarnased sõjalaevad) kasutasid ka nende lähedased vaenlased, nimelt araablased, umbes 7. sajandil pKr.

Kujunduse muudatuste osas oli dromonil tõenäoliselt täielik tekk (katastrōma), millel võis olla suurtükivägi, kuid millel ei olnud silmatorkavalt ka löögijääke. Selle asemel oli sõjalaevale paigaldatud veepealne kannus (terava otsaga), mida kasutati vaenlase aerude purustamiseks, vastupidiselt laevakerede läbistamisele. Võib oletada ka seda, kuidas droonid, sõltumata nende ühest või kahest aerukaldast, olid varustatud tõhusate (kolmnurkse kujuga) lateenpurjetega, mille võisid kasutusele võtta araablased, kes omakorda võtsid tehnoloogia kasutusele indiaanlastelt.

4) tulekahju (kasutatud erinevatel ajastutel, umbes 5. sajandist eKr- 19. sajandil pKr)-

Graham Turneri illustratsioon

Meretehnoloogia osas on tulelaev üldmõiste, mida kasutatakse erinevat tüüpi sõjalaevade puhul, mida kasutati erinevate taktikaliste tulemustega. Näiteks üks vanimaid „tuletõrjelaeva” lugusid puudutab laeva, mille sõna otseses mõttes süttisid sürakuslased, kes seejärel juhatasid põleva laeva ateenlaste poole (Sitsiilia ekspeditsiooni ajal, umbes 413 eKr). Viimane suutis aga leegi kustutamisega ohu maandada. Sarnast taktikalist trikki kasutati ka Punaste kaljude lahingu ajal (umbes 208 pKr), kui kindral Huang Gai lasi oma vaenlase Cao Cao suunas lahti tuletõrjelaevu (varutud süüte, kuiva pilliroo ja rasvase õliga).

Teisest küljest töötasid idapoolsed roomlased (Bütsantsi impeerium) välja tulekahju vaieldamatult tõhusama versiooni nende olulisel kohtumisel araablaste vastu, umbes aastal 677 pKr. Kasutades ülalnimetatud dromon-tüüpi sõjalaevu, varustasid roomlased oma noolemängu kambüüsid tavalise noka (või kannuse) asemel spetsiaalsete sifoonide ja pumpamisseadmetega. Need sifoonid tekitasid vedelat tuld (või Kreeka tuld), mis jätkas põlemist isegi vees hõljudes. Tegelikult on mõned kirjanikud selgitanud, kuidas kurjalt tõhusat Kreeka tuld saaks leevendada ainult selle kustutamisega liiva, kange äädika või vana uriiniga.

Piisab, kui öelda, et relv ja tulelaev olid täiuslikult kohandatud meresõjaks ja sellisena kasutas Ida-Rooma impeerium seda võitude kindlustamiseks paljudel merepõhistel kohtumistel-märkimisväärsete näidetega, mis hõlmasid Konstantinoopoli kahe araabia piiramise vastu saavutatud otsustavat edu. Kreeka tule tegemise ja (järgneva) kasutuselevõtmise protseduurid jäid aga hoolikalt valvatud sõjaliseks saladuseks - nii palju, et algne koostisosa on aja jooksul tegelikult kadunud. Sellegipoolest spekuleerivad teadlased, et aine koostis võis olla seotud selliste kemikaalidega nagu vedel nafta, tööstusbensiin, pigi (saadud kivisöetõrvast), väävel, vaik, kustutamata lubi ja bituumen - kõik koos mingi salajase koostisosaga.

Lisaks on 11. sajandi ettekujutusi Põhja-Song-dünastia tulekahjude kohta, mis võivad olla varustatud Ida-Rooma mereväe Kreeka tulemehhanismidega sarnaste leegiheitjatega. Purjete ajastul (1571–1862 pKr) kasutasid erinevad mereväed plahvatusohtlikke tulekahjusid. Neid tõrva- ja rasvasisaldusega ning püssirohuga täidetud laevu juhtis väike meeskond, kes põgenes viimastel hetkedel, enne kui süütepõleng sai vaenlase veesõidukile otsa sõita. Piisab, kui öelda, et selline halastamatu mereväe taktika oli tavaliselt ette nähtud ankurdatud laevade ründamiseks, mitte avamerel.

5) Viking Longship (umbes 10. sajand pKr) -

Kuigi viikingite rüüstelaevad olid viikingite rünnakute ja sõjaliste ettevõtmiste üks iseloomulikke jooni, oli nende laevade kujundus erinev - see on vastuolus meie levinud arusaamadega. Ajaloolaste sõnul saab selle variatsiooni ulatuse usutavalt hüpoteesida paljude tehniliste terminite arvust, mida tänapäevastes allikates nende kirjeldamiseks kasutatakse. Sel eesmärgil tegid viikingid enne 10. sajandit väga vähe vahet oma mitmekesiste kaubalaevade ja sõjalaevade vahel - nii (kui ka teisi) tüüpe kasutati ülemeremaade sõjalisteks ettevõtmisteks. Lihtsamalt öeldes tehti esimesed viikingireidid mööda Inglismaa rannikut (sealhulgas Lindisfarne kloostri rüüstamine aastal 793 pKr, mis tähistab viikingiaja algust) tõenäoliselt selliste hübriidlaevade abil, mis ei olnud spetsiaalselt kohandatud sõjalistel eesmärkidel - erinevalt aastal esitletud erilaevadest Viikingid Telesari.

Kuid 9. – 10. Sajandi järgsel perioodil suurendasid viikingireiderid oma organiseeritud arvu sõjaväeasutuste või ledungenpüüdsid spetsiaalselt kavandada sõjalisi sõjalaevu, mille struktuurilised muudatused olid kohandatud nii võimsusele kui ka kiirusele. Tuntud kui snekkja (või õhukesed), kelmikas (tähendab - ‘mis lõikab vett läbi’) ja drekar (või drakkar, mis tähendab draakonit-tuletatud kuulsast draakonipeast-need sujuvad pikad laevad kippusid olema pikemad ja saledamad, moodustades suurema arvu aerusid. Teisest küljest nõudis suurenenud kauplemine ka spetsialiseeritud kaubalaevu või kaupskip mis olid laiemad kõrgete vabaparrastega ja sõltusid nende suuremast purjejõust.

Arvestades nende kena disaini volitusi, nõudis viikingite pikalaev neutraalsetes vetes sõites traditsiooniliselt ainult ühte meest aeru kohta. Aga kui lahing oli käes, liitus sõudjaga veel kaks sõdurit, kelle ülesanne oli mitte ainult ulatada kätt (laeva kiiruse suurendamiseks), vaid ka kaitsta sõudjat vaenlase rakettide eest. Ja kui viikingite haarangud muutusid kasumlikumaks ja organiseeritumaks, tõlgiti rikkus veelgi suuremateks ja paremateks sõjalaevadeks. Üks hea näide oleks kuningas Olaf Tryggvasoni (kes valitses Norrat aastatel 995–1000 pKr) tabavalt nimetatud Pikk madu. Legendide kohaselt kandis see laev Svolderi merelahingus väidetavalt kaheksa meest poole toa (või aer) kohta, mis võrduks üle 550 mehega üle parda, kui arvestada ka teisi võitlejaid. Praktilises plaanis võis see stsenaarium olla võimalike tõlkeprobleemidega pisut liialdatud. Kuid isegi kui arvestada 8 meest toa kohta (või 4 meest aeru kohta), on see meeste koguarv Pikk madu oleks saanud kanda üle 300!

6) Carrack (pärit 14. sajandist pKr) -

Navigatsiooniajaloo üheks mõjukamaks laevakujunduseks peetud carrack oli tõenäoliselt üks esimesi merelaevu, mis arenes kaugemale sõja kambüüside disainist. Sisuliselt hoidus carrack igasugusest aerupõhisest süsteemist, tuginedes täielikult purjetele. Sel eesmärgil oli täielikult välja töötatud karkassikujundus tavaliselt ruudukujuline ees- ja põhimastiga ning mizzenmastil lateen-rigged. Carraki suurus koos oma nikerdatud konstruktsiooniga tugevate keredega tõstis selle esile ka kambüüsi baasil valmistatud eelkäijatest, mõnel versioonil oli võimsus umbes 1000 tonni.

16. sajandi alguseks oli carrack (tuntud ka kui nao Vahemere teatris) sai Atlandi ookeani kaubateede ja uuringute standardlaevaks. Lihtsamalt öeldes muutis vagunite massiivne võimsus neist ideaalsed kandidaadid kaubalaevadeks, samas kui nende tugev disain ja kõrge ahtriosa (koos suurte linnade, ahtrite ja vööripritsidega) muutsid need tõhusaks sõjaliste sõjalaevadena.

7) Caravel (pärineb 15. sajandist pKr) -

Christopher Columbuse karavelid - Nina, Pinta ja Santa Maria (võib -olla ka carrack). DEA/G. Dagli Orti/Getty Images

Reageerides ülalnimetatud carrack-tüüpi sõjalaevade ja kaubalaevade suhteliselt keerulisele iseloomule, töötasid portugallased (ja hiljem hispaanlased) välja karaveli-väiksema, kuid suure manööverdusvõimega purjelaeva, millel oli kolm masti ja moodulpurjed. Viimasega seoses võiks laeva purjeid kohandada vastavalt meeskonna olukorrale ja nõudmistele-mõlema lateeniga (caravela latina) ja nelinurksed purjed (caravela redonda).

Piisab, kui öelda, et selline disaini paindlikkuse tase võimaldas karavelil olla Portugali uurimistööde esirinnas. Üks asjakohane näide oleks seotud Niña ja Pinta Columbuse laevad, mis aitasid kaasa teekonnale Ameerikasse. 15. sajandi lõpuks ehitasid portugallased suuremaid karavelide variante, sageli parema liikuvusega pühendatud sõjalaevadena. Mõnel neist kujundustest oli neli masti (kombineeritud nii ruudukujuliste kui ka lateenimisplatvormidega) koos prognoosiga ja ahtrilinnuga (kuigi need olid väiksemad kui carracks).

8) Galleass (pärineb 15. sajandi lõpust pKr) -

Galerii graveerimine plaanist Plussieurs Batiments de Mer avec leurs Proportions (u 1690), autor Henri Sbonski de Passebon. Allikas: Wikimedia Commons

Kujundati kompromissiks purjega juhitavate suuremate laevade ja aeruga veetavate kambüüside vahel, varustati kambüür aerude (tavaliselt 32) ja mastide (tavaliselt 3) kombinatsiooniga. Põhimõtteliselt oli sõjalaev kavandatud kambüüside parema manööverdusvõimega, omades samal ajal ka mahulist võimsust raskekahurväe hoidmiseks. Piisab, kui öelda, et paljud merendusfraktsioonid võtsid kasutusele galeriid, nimelt veneetslased, kes kasutasid neid tõhusalt Lepanto lahingus (1571), ja osmanid, kes nimetasid oma hübriidlaevu. mahonid.

Kahjuks tõusid aja jooksul selliste fregatitüüpi galeriide piirangud esile, eriti nende "kompromiteeriva" disaini tõttu. Näiteks ei suutnud enamik kambüüsidest kanda kambüüsipõhise kere suuruse tõttu tugevaid kandilisi purje. Samal ajal ei võimaldanud suurenenud suurus võrreldes tavalise sõja kambüüsiga kambüüsil olla nii manööverdatav kui tema aerupõhine eelkäija.

9) Chebec (pärit 16. sajandist pKr) -

A North African answer to the European warships with their broadsides (longitudinal side of the ship where the guns are placed), the chebec (or xebec – possibly derived from the Arabic word for ‘small ship’) was the evolved variant of the war galleys used by the Barbary pirates. In response to the sails and guns of the larger European warships, the chebec was also designed to make room for broadside cannons. However, at the same time, the chebec was distinctly smaller and more streamlined in its overall form – especially when compared to the massive carracks (naos) of the Mediterranean.

Over the course of a few decades, the chebec warships completely ditched the oars, while relying on three massive lateen sails – thus making the complete transition from a galley to a sailing ship. At the same time, their intricate design credentials like the adoption of large lateen yards, angular positioning of the masts, and longer prows made them speedier and more maneuverable than the bulky warships of the period. Interestingly enough, the effectiveness of the chebec warships led to their adoption in the 18th-century navies of both France and Spain.

10) Turtle Ship (origins in late 16th century) –

When the Japanese forces under daimyō Hideyoshi invaded Korea in 1592, they boasted of two significant advantages over their foes – their Portuguese supplied muskets, and their aggressive tactic of boarding enemy ships (supported by cannon fire). However, Korean Admiral Sun-Shin Yi had an answer for these ploys in the form of the newly designed Turtle Boat (Geobukseon in Korean). Constructed with the aid of newly raised private money, this relatively small fleet consisted of ships (with lengths of 120 ft and beams of 30 ft) covered in iron plates. The core frame was made from sturdy red pine or spruce, while the humongous structure itself incorporated a stable U-shaped hull, three armored decks, and two massive masts – all ‘fueled’ by a group of over 80 sinewy rowers.

However, the piece de resistance of the Turtle Boat was its special roof that consisted of an array of metallic spikes (sometimes hidden with straws) that discouraged the Japanese from boarding the ship. This daunting design was bolstered by a system of 5 types of Korean cannons emerging from 23 portholes, that had effective ranges of 300 to 500 m (1000 ft to 1600 ft). And finally, the awe-inspiring craft was made even more intimidating – with a dragon-head on the bow of the vessel that supposedly gave out sulfur smoke to hide the ponderous movement of the boisterous boat.

11) Galleon (origins in 16th century AD) –

According to historian Angus Konstam, the early 16th century was a period of innovation for ship designs, with the adoption of better sailing rigs and onboard artillery systems. A product of this technological trend in marine affairs gave rise to the galleon – a warship inspired by the combination of both the maneuverability of caravels and the hefty nature of carracks. To that end, the galleon was possibly developed as a specialized marine craft with a keel-up design dedicated primarily to naval battles and encounters, but also having some cargo-carrying capacity.

After the 1570s, it was the Spanish navy that took an active interest in developing their own version of the galleon – thus leading to the Royal Galleons of the Spanish Armada. These incredible warships ranged from humongous 1,000-ton (with 50 onboard guns) to 500-ton (with 30 onboard guns) capacities but were complemented by graceful designs, with a sharper stern, sleeker length-to-beam ratio (when compared to bulkier carracks), and more effective hull shape for carrying artillery. However, by the early 17th century, the sizes of the Royal Galleons were trimmed down – to be increasingly used as escorts (and even cargo ships) for the highly profitable transatlantic trade routes.

As for the artillery on-board the typical galleon, there were several varieties, including the larger canones (cannon), culebrinas (culverins), pedreros (stone-shotted guns), bombardettas (wrought-iron guns), and versus (swivel guns). Among these, the pedreros – used as close-range anti-personnel weapons, and bombardettas – with their lower ranges when compared to bronze guns, were increasingly considered as outdated by the 17th century. Teisest küljest, versos, with their swivel-mount and faster breech-loading mechanisms, were effective and flexible for both solid-shot and grapeshot.

12) Schooner (origins in the 17th century) –

The schooner was typically defined as a relatively small marine vessel with two or more masts – with fore and aft sails on both these masts. Now while it was smaller than the general warships of the period, the schooner (and the even tinnier sloop) were the preferred crafts commanded by the pirates who operated in the Caribbean region from around 1660-1730 AD. This probably had to do with their relative inconspicuousness, greater speed, and better maneuverability – especially when compared to the bulky merchant ships. Simply put, the pirates of the Caribbean tended to prey on the merchant vessels rather than the powerful warships that usually even moved in squadrons.

As for the ship-mounted guns, the sloop and larger schooner were typically equipped with the 4-pounder (also called the Canon de 4 Gribeauval), the lightest weight cannon in the arsenal of the contemporary French field artillery. These gun pieces weighed around 637 lbs and had a maximum range of over 1,300 yards. Larger pirate ships (like Black Bart’s Royal Fortune) obviously carried bigger guns, including the medium 8-pounder and heavy 12-pounder.

Conclusion – Ship of the Line

HMS Hercule – ship of the line, painting by Louis-Philippe Crépin. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Unfortunately, in spite of the many modifications (both structural and organizational) made on the Spanish galleon, naval warfare in the decades of the mid 17th century changed significantly in terms of formations and maneuvers. To that end, in the following years, one of the widespread tactics adopted by many contemporary European navies related to the ‘line of the battle’ – basically entailing the formation of a line by the ships end to end, which allowed them to collectively fire their cannon volleys from the broadsides without any danger of friendly-fire.

The adoption of such tactics translated to ships being used as floating artillery platforms, thereby resulting in the design of heavier vessels with more number of guns – better known as the ‘ship of the line’. Suffice it to say, the sleeker warship (like the galleon) was ironically anachronistic, with the focus of shipbuilders once again shifting to the bigger warships with broadside artillery platforms.


The Second Punic War

In 219 BC, Hannibal laid siege to Saguntum, a coastal city in northeast Hispania that enjoyed a long-standing treaty of friendship with Rome. In 226 BC, however, Hasdrubal the Fair signed a treaty with Rome that acknowledged Carthage's control of Hispania south of the Ebro River. Saguntum's status, therefore, was ambiguous: was it an ally of Rome or a ward of Carthage? When the besieged Saguntines appealed to Rome, Rome pressured the Carthaginians to recognize their alliance with Saguntum. Even as the Romans attempted to negotiate a settlement to the crisis, Hannibal captured the city after an eight-month siege. When Carthage refused Roman demands for Hannibal's extradition, both sides prepared for war.

Rome and Carthage enjoyed different military advantages than they had during the last war. Hannibal now fielded the best-trained and equipped army in the ancient world the Romans enjoyed complete naval superiority, which they could use to invade Carthaginian territory at will. Rome expected to exploit this advantage to wage a quick, offensive war that would compel Carthage to sue for peace on Rome's terms. Hannibal, however, had a plan to restore Carthage's supremacy in the western Mediterranean. First, he would neutralize Rome's advantage at sea through a daring invasion of Italy across the Alps. Hannibal correctly saw that the presence of a foreign army in Italy would compel the Romans to abandon their planned assault on Carthage. Once across the Alps, Hannibal planned to recruit soldiers from the recently conquered regions of northern and southern Italy and convince other kingdoms in the East to join forces against Rome. At the head of this combined force, Hannibal would cut at the roots of Roman military power by disrupting the intricate web of alliances that bound the cities and peoples of Italy to Rome. It is important to note that Hannibal's goal at the start of the war was not to destroy the city or exterminate the Romans, despite the claims made by later Roman authors. Hannibal assumed that a few decisive victories in Italy would compel Rome to negotiate a new peace treaty on terms favorable to Carthage. At the least, he thought he could win a restoration of Carthaginian holdings in Sicily and Sardinia and a recognition of their empire in Hispania. Roman resolve, however, would again surprise the Carthaginians.

At the start of the war, the Romans assumed that Hannibal, whose army was in constant danger of being outflanked by sea, would seek to protect Carthage's hard-won territory in northern Hispania. The Roman strategy assumed that one army would pin Hannibal down in Hispania, freeing another to invade the Carthaginian homeland in Africa. But Hannibal, ever bold, seized the initiative and marched towards Italy with a large army. He evaded the first Roman army sent against him and arrived at the Alps in late 218 BC with 38,000 infantry troops, 8,000 cavalrymen, and 37 war elephants. The brutal march over the mountains in the early winter cost Hannibal nearly a third of his army and most of his irreplaceable elephants. But his gamble worked. He was able to lead an intact army into Italy. Hannibal then won a cavalry engagement at Ticinus and forced the Romans to withdraw south of the Padus River. Facing an enemy army in Italy, the Romans recalled the forces that were being marshaled for the planned invasion of Africa. Hannibal had succeeded in forestalling the invasion of Carthage. His audacity had gained him the chance to win the war in Italy.

In quick succession, Hannibal inflicted two crushing defeats on a stunned and unprepared Rome. At Trebia, 30,000 freezing Roman soldiers were lured into an ambush and killed [Trebia Battle Schematic]. Hannibal then crossed the Padus River into central Italy. Despite the shocking defeat, Rome refused to negotiate terms with the invader. In 217, the two consuls raised a new army and led it against Hannibal. At Lake Trasimene, Hannibal again demonstrated his mastery of battlefield tactics when the consul Gaius Flaminius Nepos and more than 40,000 soldiers were ambushed on the narrow path along the shore of the lake. Nearly all of the Roman soldiers in Flaminius' army were either killed or captured [Trasimene Battle Schematic]. After this second disaster, Rome was seized by panic and memories of the Gallic Sack of 390 BC. But still the Romans refused to surrender or even negotiate an exchange of prisoners. Instead, Fabius Maximus was elected dictator and invested with unlimited power to confront the threat to Rome.

Unlike his impetuous colleagues, Fabius accurately assessed the tactical and strategic situation facing Rome. Fabius realized that Hannibal's decisive advantage in cavalry forces made it too risky to engage him in a large-scale battle on level ground. He also recognized that Rome's superior manpower would eventually yield victory, provided that he could thwart Hannibal's strategic goal of separating Rome from her Italian allies. Fabius therefore avoided a direct confrontation with Hannibal's forces. He focused instead on protecting Rome's allies and wearing down Hannibal's army through small raids. This "Fabian" tactic of avoiding decisive battle spared Rome's soldiers and preserved Rome's alliances, but his caution lost him favor among the more aggressive-minded Roman senators who were eager to confront Hannibal, as well as many other Roman citizens whose property was being destroyed by Hannibal's army.

Unchecked, Hannibal ranged throughout Italy, eventually destroying 400 towns and capturing several large cities. In the face of such devastation, two new consuls were elected on the promise to make short work of Hannibal. Under the burning summer sky, the largest army that Rome would ever field within Italy marched to crush what they saw as Hannibal's gaggle of barbarians. Outside of the strategic town of Cannae, however, Hannibal annihilated both consular armies: as many as 70,000 Romans and allies were butchered in a single afternoon—among the worst defeats ever suffered by Rome, or indeed by any army.

Rome's allies began to waver as Hannibal's successes mounted. Several major cities revolted, as did large swaths of southern Italy. Soon after Cannae, another army was destroyed while attempting to pacify a Gallic tribe that had defected to Hannibal. Hannibal's army and his allies had killed upwards of 175,000 Roman and Italian soldiers in just over 20 months. At this moment, Philip of Macedon agreed to open a second front against Roman interests in Illyria. By almost any reckoning, Hannibal had won the war. Rome's power base had been reduced to central Italy and Sicily. It had lost the core of its army and a large portion of its military and political aristocracy, its allies were abandoning it, and rival powers were beginning to line up behind Hannibal, who must have thought he was on the verge of victory. Yet even in the face of these manifold disasters, Rome rejected even the thought of peace on Hannibal's terms. It banned public displays of mourning, refused to negotiate, and began recruiting new armies. Improbably, the war had only just begun.

In this moment of crisis, Rome resumed the Fabian strategy. Decisive battles were avoided whenever possible, allies were protected, disloyal or captured cities were slowly re-conquered. The Romans deployed their fleet to limit reinforcements from Philip of Macedon or Carthage. They used clever diplomacy to enmesh Philip in a costly and distracting war in Greece. With the immediate crisis averted, Rome's superiority in manpower and organization eventually began to turn the tide. During the decade from 215 to 205 BC Rome fielded as many as seven and never fewer than four two-legion armies every year in Italy. At its peak mobilization in 212 BC, Rome fielded 25 legions and a massive fleet with over 200,000 men, which it used to conduct simultaneous operations from Hispania to Africa to the Aegean. Hannibal, who was never able to field more than three large armies at a time, was thus constantly made to react to Roman operations against his new Italian allies.

In 211, Hannibal at last marched against Rome. It would be more than 600 years before a foreign army would again marshal outside of Rome's gates. Even so, Hannibal was incapable of sustaining a prolonged siege against the well-defended city. This move was only a diversionary tactic to forestall a Roman expedition to Africa. By 209, Rome had retaken most of the cities in Italy and begun to make inroads against Carthaginian territory in Hispania. Hannibal, however, still hoped to win the war. A decade of continual war had wrecked the Italian economy. Rome's allies were exhausted and eager for peace. Even the Latin cities, Rome's staunchest allies, refused new levies, claiming that no men remained in their towns.

At this crucial juncture Hannibal suffered three disastrous setbacks. First his brother Hasdrubal, who was attempting to reinforce Hannibal by land, was killed and his army destroyed at Metaurus in 207. Then Scipio Africanus completed the conquest of Hispania in 206. Finally, a large resupply fleet from Carthage was destroyed in 205. Hannibal's daring gambit—his attempt to destroy Rome's alliances before its superior resources and population could provide it with a decisive advantage—had failed. When Roman forces began operating in North Africa, Hannibal was recalled to defend the Carthaginian homeland.

In 204, Scipio Africanus invaded North Africa and promptly annihilated a large army of Carthaginians and Numidians in a daring nighttime assault. The stage was set for a climactic showdown between Hannibal and Scipio Africanus. In 202 at the Battle of Zama, Hannibal was at last able to deploy war elephants against the Romans. But Scipio had developed tactics to minimize their effectiveness and Hannibal's young, untrained elephants did more damage to the Carthaginians than the Romans. The battle was won when Scipio’s superior Numidian cavalry routed its Carthaginian counterpart and attacked the Carthaginian rear lines. While Roman losses in the battle numbered under 2,000 nearly ten times as many Carthaginians died. [Zama Battle Schematic: Animated].

Even as Hannibal attempted to regroup, Carthage sued for peace. The terms were onerous: Carthage agreed to surrender all territory outside Africa, to wage war only with Roman permission, and to pay a massive indemnity of 5,000 talents (later raised to 10,000) over fifty years. Carthage's empire and its military power were broken. Rome stood unchallenged as the most powerful state in the western Mediterranean.


Hannibal vs. Rome: Why the Battle of Cannae Is One of the Most Important in History

One of the most pivotal battles in Western history, the Battle of Cannae, was fought 2,232 years ago to the year. The Battle of Cannae occurred on August 2, 216 BCE in southeast Italy between Carthaginian forces led by Hannibal Barca and Roman forces led by Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro. Both forces also included various allied soldiers. The battle, which ended in a major Roman defeat, is considered to be of great importance because of its tactical lessons for posterity, as well as the fact that it was the closest the Roman state had come to destruction in its history up to that point.

Of course, the Battle of Cannae did not spell the end of the Roman Republic it not only survived the disaster, but ended up beating and eventually annexing the Carthaginians. Eventually, the Roman Republic became an empire whose cultural, political and legal legacy to the world is incalculable. But Rome might have never learned the lessons of toughness that made it so great had it not faced the existential crisis brought on by Hannibal’s invasion of Italy.

After the Roman Republic beat Carthage in the First Punic War (264-241 BCE), the Carthaginians looked for ways to strengthen themselves militarily and economically. As a result of the war, the Romans became the dominant naval power in the Mediterranean. One way in which this was achieved was the colonization of Iberia, then a mineral-rich region inhabited by various tribes. This effort was spearheaded by a Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca. Eventually, by 218 BCE, Hamilcar’s son Hannibal commanded Carthaginian forces in Iberia while using its resources to build up a significant force. That year, the Second Punic War began when Hannibal attacked the cited of Saguntum in Iberia, which had allied with the Romans despite being in the Carthaginian sphere of influence. Hannibal then took the initiative and invaded the Roman heartland of Italy through the Alps with about 38 thousand infantry, eight thousand cavalry and 37 elephants.

Once in Italy, Hannibal had the upper hand, and many tribes that had been conquered by the Romans either failed to assist the Romans or aided Hannibal. Direct confrontations between Roman and Carthaginian forces led to Roman defeats at Trebia (218) and Lake Trasimene (217), the latter of which is often described as the largest ambush in history. The Romans, by then desperate, appointed a dictator, Fabius Maximus, who adapted a non-confrontational strategy, avoiding open battles and engaging in guerilla warfare. However, as Hannibal marched to southern Italy, where he aimed to persuade many Greek and Italian allies of Rome to switch sides, hotter heads prevailed, and Paullus and Varro were elected Consuls. They raised an army of forty thousand Roman legionaries, forty thousand allied infantry, and 2,500 cavalry to confront Hannibal, who awaited them at Cannae.

From the start, even before the battle began, Hannibal demonstrated the strategic genius for which he is remembered for today. For example, he chose to camp his army in Cannae because it was a food magazine for the Romans, and was located in a region where Rome acquired much of its grain supply. These facts put much pressure on the Roman army. After the Romans arrived, Hannibal sent his cavalry to prevent the Romans from accessing water from the only river in the area, thus provoking a fight on his terms.

On the third day, Varro, who had decided to confront Hannibal’s forces, maneuvered him against the river so that Hannibal’s forces would be arranged in a thin line. Meanwhile, the Roman infantry was arranged in depth. The battle that followed was a classical example of a successful flanking maneuver. As the Roman infantry advanced forward, it became increasingly closely-packed and disorganized. Parts of the Carthaginian infantry swung up to the sides of the advancing Romans, attacking their flanks and further disturbing their organization. While this was occurring, the Carthaginian cavalry defeated the Roman cavalry on the edges of the battle and then attacked the Romans from the rear. Surrounded in a hot and packed space, the Romans were decisively defeated. The slaughter continued until the end of the day, when some survivors cut their way out and escaped. Varro survived, but his co-consul Paullus was killed. More soldiers died at Cannae than on the first day of the Battle of the Somme on the Western Front in 1916.

It is a testament to the great luck and tenacity of the Romans that they survived this battle. Although their allied city-states in southern Italy and Greece switched sides after Cannae, Hannibal lacked the strength and supplies to take Rome, which refused peace. A long, drawn out war resulted in a Roman army eventually attacking the Carthaginian homeland itself. Hannibal was recalled from Italy to Carthage, where he was defeated at the Battle of Zama in 202 BCE by one Scipio Africanus.

Cannae has had a lasting legacy. In the short term, it forced the Romans to develop a greater level of tactical flexibility for their infantry to prevent their army from getting flanked again. In the longer term, it has provided numerous lessons to military commanders throughout the ages. Cannae illustrates both the need for caution and the usefulness of avoiding battle if the situation so warrants it, as well as the desirability for a total battle of annihilation if that can be had. Many commanders throughout Western history have sought to replicate Cannae because of its total tactical decisiveness. As then General Dwight D. Eisenhower once said, “every ground commander seeks the battle of annihilation so far as conditions permit, he tries to duplicate the classical example of Cannae.”

Akhilesh Pillalamarri is an international relations analyst, editor and writer, who contributes to the Diplomaat ja National Interest. He received his Master of Arts in Security Studies from the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, where he concentrated in international security. You can follow him at his Twitter handle @akhipill.

Pilt: Hannibal Crossing the Alps detail from a fresco ca 1510. Wikimedia Commons/Creative Commons/José Luiz Bernardes Ribeiro


The Conquest

The Maya civilization was already somewhat fragmented when Europeans arrived in the early 1500's, and the weak and divided Maya were easily conquered by the Spaniards. Pedro de Alvarado, sent by Hernán Cortés, was engaged in the conquest of the highlands of Guatemala from 1523 to 1527. Alvarado was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala, and was known for his skill as a soldier and his cruelty to native populations.

Alvarado first allied himself with the Cakchiquel nation to fight against their traditional rivals, the Quiché nation. Once he felt militarily secure, Alvarado turned against the Cakchiquels, meeting them in several battles until they were subdued in 1530. Battles with other tribes continued up to 1548, when the Kek'chí in Nueva Sevilla, Izabal were defeated, leaving the Spanish to rule.

Those of native blood descended to the bottom of the new social hierarchy. The lands were carved up into large estates and the people ruthlessly exploited by the new landowners. The last cities conquered were Tayasal, capital of the Itzá Maya, and Zacpetén, capital of the Ko'woj Maya, both in 1697. These cities endured several attempts, including a failed attempt by Hernán Cortés in 1542. In order to conquer these last Maya sites, the Spaniards had to attack them on three fronts, one coming from Yucatan, another from Belize, and the third one from Alta Verapaz.


Teine Puunia sõda

Meie toimetajad vaatavad teie esitatud teabe üle ja otsustavad, kas artiklit muuta.

Teine Puunia sõda, nimetatud ka Second Carthaginian War, second (218–201 bce ) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean.

In the years after the First Punic War, Rome wrested Corsica and Sardinia from Carthage and forced Carthaginians to pay an even greater indemnity than the payment exacted immediately following the war. Eventually, however, under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca, his son Hannibal, and his son-in-law Hasdrubal, Carthage acquired a new base in Spain, whence they could renew the war against Rome.

In 219 Hannibal captured Saguntum (Sagunto) on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Rome demanded his withdrawal, but Carthage refused to recall him, and Rome declared war. Because Rome controlled the sea, Hannibal led his army overland through Spain and Gaul and across the Alps, arriving in the plain of the Po River valley in 218 bce with 20,000 infantry and 6,000 cavalry. Roman troops tried to bar his advance but were outmatched, and Hannibal’s hold over northern Italy was established. In 217 Hannibal, reinforced by Gallic tribesmen, marched south. Rather than attack Rome directly, he marched on Capua, the second largest town in Italy, hoping to incite the populace to rebel. He won several battles but still refrained from attacking the city of Rome, even after annihilating a huge Roman army at Cannae in 216. The defeat galvanized Roman resistance. A brilliant defensive strategy conducted by Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator harried the Carthaginians without offering battle. Thus, the two armies remained deadlocked on the Italian peninsula until 211 bce , when Rome recaptured the city of Capua.

In 207 Hasdrubal, following Hannibal’s route across the Alps, reached northern Italy with another large army supported by legions of Ligurians and Gauls. Hasdrubal marched down the peninsula to join Hannibal for an assault on Rome. Rome, exhausted by war, nevertheless raised and dispatched an army to check Hasdrubal. Gaius Nero, commander of the southern Roman army, slipped away north also and defeated Hasdrubal on the banks of the Metauros River. Hannibal maintained his position in southern Italy until 203, when he was ordered to return to Africa. Italy was free of enemy troops for the first time in 15 years. During the long mainland campaign, fighting had continued as well on Sardinia and Sicily, which had become Rome’s chief sources of food. Aided by internal upheaval in Syracuse, Carthage reestablished its presence on the island in 215 and maintained it until 210. Meanwhile, in Spain, Roman forces maintained pressure on Carthaginian strongholds. The Roman general Publius Scipio won a decisive battle at Ilipa in 206 and forced the Carthaginians out of Spain.

After his Spanish victory Scipio determined to invade the Carthaginian homeland. He sailed for Africa in 204 and established a beachhead. The Carthaginian council offered terms of surrender but reneged at the last minute, pinning its hopes on one last battle. The massed Carthaginian army, led by Hannibal, was defeated at Zama. The Carthaginians accepted Scipio’s terms for peace: Carthage was forced to pay an indemnity and surrender its navy, and Spain and the Mediterranean islands were ceded to Rome.


Battle of Lixia, late 204 BC - History

(ATA-204: dp. 860 1. 143' b. 33' dr. 14', s. 14 k.
cpl. 46 a. 1 3" cl. ATA-121)

The second Wandank (ATA-204)—originally projected as ATR-13l, a steel hulled rescue tug—was laid down as A TA-204 on 25 September 1944 at Port Arthur, Tex., by the Gulfport Boiler and Welding Works, launched on 9 November 1944 and commissioned on 18 January 1945, Lt. (jg.) Vernon L. Ryan, USNR, in command.

Following her shakedown in the Caribbean, ATA-204 got underway on 23 February for the Panama Canal, en route to the Pacific. The auxiliary ocean tug operated with the Pacific Fleet through the end of hostilities, performing services at locales ranging from Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to the Marshall Islands. After hostilities ended, she returned to San Francisco, Calif., late in August 1945 and soon shifted to the Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton, Wash. She operated in the 13th Naval District until she was decommissioned on 26 November 1947 and placed in reserve.

The onset of the Korean War gave the vessel a new lease on life, however, triggering the expansion of the United States Navy to maintain a posture of global readiness. ATA-204 was reactivated on 17 April 1952 at Astoria, Oreg., for assignment to the 14th Naval District. Recommissioned at Pearl Harbor on 3 May 1952, Lt. William A. Walden in command, the auxiliary ocean tug received the name Wandank and retained her ATA-204 designation.

For the next three years, Wandank operated out of Pearl Harbor, providing tug and tow services for the Pacific Fleet, and occasionally deployed to Samoa and other Pacific isles with tows. On 9 September 1955, the tug was transferred to the Marianas. There, she towed barges of supplies, stood ready to assist in search and rescue (SAR) operations, provided target services for gunnery and torpedo exercises, and conducted local surveillance missions out of Guam into the 1960's.

During this deployment, the ocean tug supported scientific operations in addition to her more routine duties. In January 1960, for example, Wandank served as communication relay and support ship for the bathy-scaphe Trieste in Project "Nekton." She towed the underwater craft some 260 miles from Guam to the vicinity of the Challenger Deep, where, on 23 January Trieste descended to 37,000 feet. Four years later, in November 1964, Wandank conducted a survey of the Solomon Islands in a joint project sponsored by the University of Hawaii's Institute of Geophysics and the Office of Naval Research. During the course of this operation, she measured the earth's gravity in the area.

On occasion, Wandank's operations nonetheless assumed a dangerous character during tropical tempests. During one of these storms, which occurred late in 1963, Wandank was trapped between two typhoons while en route to her annual buoy maintenance duty at Chichi Jima in the Bonins. In the heavy seas, her tow line parted, leaving YCV-18 adrift. During the ensuing recovery operations, the tug's first lieutenant, J. B. Clark, was knocked overboard by a heavy wave and swept from sight.

In July 1966, Wandank rendezvoused with Japanese merchantman Yeiji Maw, which had been experiencing engine trouble, and escorted the distressed ship to Guam. Later that year, she towed SS Old Westoury to a safe haven, relieving Sunnadin (ATA-197) which had run low on fuel on 11 November.

The year 1967 passed with much the same routine and, in 1968, the ship participated in her first operations in connection with the Vietnam War. She towed a gasoline barge, YOG-131, from Guam to Danang South Vietnam, from 3 to 15 January. After returning from Vietnamese waters, she performed island survey duties in the Western Carolinas and subsequently helped to search for floating drydock AFDM-6 which had broken loose from her civilian tow vessel. Wandank next participated in special operations into the summer before making a second voyage to Vietnamese waters, towing APL - O to Vung Tau, Vietnam, from 16 August to 1 September.

Wandank commenced the year 1969 with more island surveillance missions in the central Carolines, sending a landing party ashore from her crew to ascertain the needs of the islanders who lived under the care and protection of the Trust Territories. She conducted a training mission to Yokosuka, Japan, in February and March before returning to a schedule of surveillance operations in the northern Marianas. She trained for possible participation in Project "Apollo" in April before she towed three barges from Sattahip, Thailand, to Vung Tau, from 13 April to 8 May.

Upon returning to the vicinity of the Marianas and Carolines soon thereafter, she conducted local operations through the end of the year. Wandank interrupted this duty only long enough to tow LCU-1488 to Ponape Island and LCU-1497 to Majuro from 25 November to 4 December. During her final full year of naval service, 1970, the ship conducted local operations out of her home port of Apra Harbor, Guam.

She got underway from Guam on 20 January 1971 for Hong Kong and then escorted three Asheville-class patrol gunboats to Subic Bay and Camranh Bay, serving as a communication back-up vessel. She later escorted two gunboats from Camranh Bay to Hong Kong before returning to island surveillance duties.

Decommissioned at Guam on 1 July 1971, Wandank was simultaneously turned over to the Department of the Interior for service in the Trust Territories, her old habitat. Returned to the Navy on 22 May 1973, Wandank was adjudged unfit for further service and accordingly struck from the Navy list on 1 August 1973. Subsequently returned to the Interior Department, she serves in the Trust Territories on island surveillance and local towing duties.

Wandank was awarded three battle stars for her Vietnam War service.


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